Saturday, August 31, 2019
The play being discussed in this critique will be Metamorphoses written and originally directed by Mary Zimmerman. The URI Theatre department produced its own version directed by Steven Raider-Ginsburg. It was performed between the dates of February 21-March 3, 2013. Costume design was by David T Howard, Scene design by Patrick Lynch. Lighting design was handled by Christian Wittwer and Sound design was by Michael Hyde. This production shows students continuing their development as actors thru the form of Theatre. Metamorphoses is a play that is staged as a series of vignettes. It was originally based on the poem by the Roman poet Ovid. He uses ancient Greek Mythology to explain the events happening in the vignettes. Gods like Poseidon, Hermes Americo Lanni. Or Hades and Midas played by Brandon Gailliard. Zeus and Bacchus were played by Benjamin Hill. Who could forget Aphrodite played by Catherine Poirier. Metamorphoses is not a conventional arrangement and has a non-linear point of view. A linear dramatic action may be set as with the following steps, one- A state of equilibrium, two- An inciting incident, three.- Point of attack of the major dramatic question, four- Rising action, five- Climax, six- Resolution and seven- New state of equilibrium. First one event, then the next and the following one after that and so on and so forth. Metamorphoses does not follow this laid out set of steps and no single analysis can make it follow this formula. However each of the separate stories embedded within the play is in itself a Ã¢â¬Å"well-made playÃ¢â¬ within a play. Each story can be easily followed and analyzed through a look at the seven parts already established. An example that can easily demonstrate and lay out the structure is the story of Erysichthon described within Metamorphoses. When it comes to the actual production of the play there are several differences between individual performances of this play. The original play was done on water, I understand that would not be possible here. The lighting however did work for most of the play. The one part in particular I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like was for the lightning strike, maybe make the lighting fixture in the shape of a lightning bolt? Set design was another area I took particular attention to during the play. When it got dark in between scenes thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when I knew changes were being made but I can honestly say I never was able to see anyone making changes even though you knew they were there. The costume design for this play was also another challenge to create I saw. The play tended to jump a couple centuries at a time with leads to vastly different wardrobe changes. Like in the beginning they were wearing very basic white sheets, yet underneath you could notice the other layers they would be needing for later. The sound however was probably the biggest drawback for this play. Maybe itÃ¢â¬â¢s because the speakers arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the greatest but it seemed at times the special effect sounds were quitter than the actors, you couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even notice it at times when you were supposed to. Overall this was a very satisfying Theatre performance for me to see. It was my first but probably will not be my last, I look forward to enjoying more.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Steve Jobs nurtured a culture in the company that was compelled of secrecy, which inspired the employees to think differently and develop these products. (Kate, 2011) Innovation is one of the most important factors throughout the company as most of the products are designed to beat substitutes and stand out next to others. Apple has been ranked as the most innovative company for four straight years since 2005, which suggests that It will not fade anytime soon. (AY-Rubble, 2010) The company tries to maintain Innovation In all Its processes and Incorporate it around the marketing mix.The main focus is around the product as it is what the consumer is after and leads to satisfaction, which may also result in loyalty. The Pricing of the product, the promotion behind it and its placement are also infused with innovation in order to capture a good image for the consumer. Apple's products have not always been great successes, but its product line evolution tells its story. The company uses u pright innovative strategies In order to create new Innovations. Its management Is very process orientated and highly structured; It Is very customer driven and grasps nonuser needs.Apple has always addressed innovation in different forms, which has added to the success factor. The different forms and issues of innovation that apple undergo are, introducing and building new products or services that are cool, user friendly and satisfy consumer needs. With the creation if the Pod, apple have used the technology S-curve. They change the way Industries operate such as the music Industry via Tunes and create strategic pricing In order to Increase Income as the company has a strong focus on R;D.All of this was conducted under Job's innovative leadership and being an outsider, which has led the company to where it is standing now. Due to apple's immense contribution to the Industry and being a pioneer, a lot of spillovers have occurred as other companies benefit from apple's knowledge and creations. Company's innovative strategy comprises of the development of new and exciting products as well as its innovative and advanced business models. Due to its game- changing innovative products, apple has managed to be pioneers and first movers into new business areas.As these products pushed apple to be pioneers in different industries, they were not the first ones to do any particular thing and could be seen as a follower prior to the release of these products. Apple isn't the first company to invent the computer, the mobile phone or even the pod as there where MPH players prior to its invention. (Worst, 2012) They managed to develop and produce these things extremely better than the other companies, especially the ones that were pioneers and first movers prior to these products.As a follower in the beginning, Apple had the advantage of learning from mistakes of other companies and to see how they did things. This helped apple design their products, which they decided to f ocus upon what the consumers really wanted; they accelerated the path to breakthrough ideas. Apple's creation of all its innovative and stylish products helped drive and push the company to the top of its industry. Even though it was the products that propelled apple to the top, product innovation was not the only innovative side of apple.Innovation was infused into apple's innovative business models in which apple found and delivered new ways to create and capture value. (Goldstein, 2009) Apple crosses industry boundaries and deals in different areas of it. The company doesn't only deal with hardware but with software, logistics and entertainment as well. Mastering all these areas have helped apple integrate its systematic innovation, which has added to its value proposition. Apple's core products such as the pod or phone would not have been as appealing and as successful if it wasn't for the link with tunes and the App store.The App store offers different ways to make the Phone, P ad or Pod better with its applications. With the creation of Tunes, Apple pioneered in a new business space and put out a new business model for downloading music. This business model was as innovative as the software and it was powerful enough to show that people would pay for music if the price is right and the interface is simple. (Anderson, 2011) Functioning as an intermediary between the music label and the consumer, Apple has created an innovative strategy for purchasing music.Since the hardware devices are linked to the software, the razor-razorblades model can be used to describe this strategy but in the reverse direction as the APS and the add-ones including music from Tunes all cost money and consumers purchase them from their devices. Hess, 2010) The S-Curve is used to measure the adopters of a specific innovation. The curve is shaped as an S as it models the rate of the adoption. The adoption of the innovation usually starts slowly and as knowledge of the innovation incr eases, and then the rate of the adoption follows and increases as well.Eventually the adoption of the innovation levels off as most of the members of the social system adopt the innovation. (Mueller, 2008) Apple's Pod is a good example of the S-Curve Strategy. The graph below demonstrates Pod sales from the first quarter of 2002 until the second The S curve also determines the pricing strategy used by the firm as it wants to maximize profits in the beginning (bottom of the curve) and to have value pricing and minimized unit profit at the top of the curve in order to maximize market share.As seen in the graph, since Pods appeared on the market in 2002, sales have steadily increased; a couple of factors influence the yearly increase of sales. Some of these factors are, new and more developed models of Ã¢â¬ËPods, whenever there are sales such as holidays and promotions and when Apple decide to tag the product with cheaper rises. Examining the graph, one can see that from the second q uarter of 2007, the adoption rate of the innovation starts to slow down and become steadier.The big jumps in the graph indicate the holiday seasons, which inevitably skews the S Curve. (Anderson, 2011) In 2009, it is evident that the adopters that contribute to the sales are in need of an upgrade and not Just to purchase for first time usage, which leads to a new innovation. Eventually, with continuous groups of consumers adopting the new technology, the market share will reach its capacity. Thinking internationally, Apple is still in the early adopter phase as countries such as India and China are Just starting to buy Pod's and smartness powered by sis. Stamps, 2009) The S-Curve strategy also helps companies determine the point of diminishing returns, which results in them knowing when to look into new technology alternatives and alterations. Even though this strategy helps plan the development of new technology, it still has limitations. The model cannot determine how big the gain s from the new technologies will be, it also does not imply on when to invest in new technologies and eradicate the current one. (AY-Rubber, 2010) The size and structure of the S curve varies in reality between different technologies and the model is Just an overview of the observed technology routes.The biggest uncertainty within this strategy is the size of the total market; for smartness it was bigger than expected. Apple's use of the Ã¢â¬ËS' Curve is also evident in the fact that an Pod is 2002 is about the same price of one in 2011, Just that in 2011 it had at least four times the storage and capacity and is probably more profitable for the company than the one sold in 2002. (Anderson, 011) This shows that apple uses value pricing as they move through the market. Rival companies such as Google identified this as a weakness in Apple's business model.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Traditional and contemporary buildings - Research Paper Example PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s Basilica. This paper seeks to compare and contrast the two buildings looking at joints, connections and member sizes. Bespoke Design against Woodhouse Barn Homes The construction of Tamedia office building used metallic screws to join pieces of wood. These metallic screws come in various sizes depending, on the joint to be connected. This method of joining pieces of wood has been hailed for providing strength to the building. The building hosts over 480 employees. The old St. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s Basilica remains one of the most significant buildings of the renaissance. The building became a Centre for religious activities considering its strategic location (Bolgia et al, 2011). The building got constructed by Donato Bramante and Carlo Maderno. During its construction, strength and stiffness models got developed with a view to creating methods that will later be used by engineers in construction. Mortice and tenon geometry could be adopted from a reference face. Joints could be then made by use of sticking glue. This made most of the buildings constructed to lack durability as they glue would become weak with time. Construction of St. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s Basilica further used test failures, which could be employed as an approach of examining the strength and stiffness of the proposed building. The resin got used to freeze connections. The church got constructed in such a way that it could hold up to 3000 worshippers at any time. One outstanding difference between the two buildings is the main objective of each of the buildings. The main objective of the old St. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s basilica can be seen to have been durability and capacity. The building could hold a large number of worshippers and had structures that guaranteed its durability. The construction of the Tamedia office building, on the other hand, had an objective of ensuring that while the building remained strong in the long run, the building retains the aspect of modernity and class. The building p ossesses a Japanese craftsmanship. The glazed volume of the building gets topped by a mansard roof. Another aspect that differentiates the two buildings is the wood used to construct each of the buildings. The old St. Peter used hardwood timber in its construction (Bolgia et al, 2011). Hardwood was the common timber as compared to softwood. Traditional preservatives could be added to the timber to ensure the durability of the building. The Tameda building, on the other hand, used softwood that could be purposely grown for building construction. One advantage that came with the use of softwood is its flexibility. Unlike hardwood, softwood could be used to make varying construction models. Contrary to most buildings of the renaissance, the old St. Peter, applied was a daring construction that favored extra-thick walls. This was unlike the basic concepts of engineering. Windows in the outer section of the aisles filtered light into the building although the main source of lighting to i n the building came from the nave clerestory (Sobocinski et al, 2005). A total of eleven windows could be aligned with a pattern of interchanging intercolumniation. The construction of the ceiling and the roof, however, still remains unclear. Several texts have been found that seek to explain how the roof and the ceiling got constructed. One term used by most of these texts is lacunars which get used to refer to a coffered ceiling. The Tamedia building, on the
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Assigment - Research Paper Example e description of afterlife in his book Ã¢â¬Å"The Divine ComedyÃ¢â¬ wherein he elaborated the context of hell (inferno), purgatory (purgatorio) and heaven (paradise). Anyone of the right mind, when made to choose amongst the three, will certainly desire to end up in heaven or for some with conscious guilt of sins committed, it will be the purgatory but never the detrimental underworld. Alighieri illustrated nine circles of hell where the first five imprison those who committed egocentric sins, the sixth and seventh for those with violent sins, and the last two which are considered as the worst are for those with malicious sins. Evolution of culture through centuries made people contest the timelessness of AlighieriÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of misdemeanor. Such as how murder became less evil against pertinacious actions of the hypocrites or how blasphemy is on a lower circle than heresy when both profess destructive testimony against God. In this paper, an attempt to realign the hierarchy according to personal visualization of hell had been made while taking into account the annotations made by Alighieri. Reorganizing a systematize diagram is a challenging task as one could believe that it is indeed a seamless creation. I considered the seven deadly sins as published in the Bible and deemed the inclusion of Pride and Envy as sins worthy of being punished in hell. Electing a sin to be eliminated from this hierarchy is not an option yet collation of sins that I contemplated as parallel has been my alternative. The first circle would captivate the people who lived with pride and disregarded humility. They are those who took greater regard of themselves rather that humble recognizing these gifts and sharing it to those in need. As the beatitude says Ã¢â¬Å"Beati pauperes spiritu (Canto XII)Ã¢â¬ , we are called to act in humbleness not in smugness for whatever we have is the work of a Greater Power and not merely of ourselves. I include the hypocrites in this circle for I see them as too
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Article #1 - Assignment Example In this article, the author has tried to discuss many points related to job gains and rising pay in labor market and their impacts on economy. According to this article, economy is reviving rapidly ever since the recession started 8 years ago. Labor DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s report on job gains and pay raise has revealed that 321,000 jobs were created in November 2014 despite the predictions (200,000 jobs) of economist. A handsome increase (0.4) in payments to ordinary workers observed as opposed to the 0.2 estimates but jobless rate stayed at 5.8%. Plunging oil prices coupled with the advent of holiday season provided impetus to increase in wages. Increase in payrolls of 2.65 million is best annual figure since 1990s. Due to increase in wages, Federal Reserve is likely to increase short term interest rates. According to author, some experts argue that Federal Reserve may also increase its key interest rate lever in March 2015. 6.9 million Americans are working as part time employees as they cannot find full time work. The increase in wages would pursue through next six months but November data alone is not enough to change the thinking of Federal Reserve, said Guy Berger, United States economist at RBS. In the recent years, energy sector has been performing well in term of job growth but in the aftermath of slump in oil prices throughout the world, energy sector is expected to cut jobs. The prospect of higher interest rates is making investors cautious and stocks and bonds rose modestly after publishing of Department of Labor report. In my point of view, the author has tried his best to prove the points he tried to explain. But at some points there is no clear indication of facts by the authors. Author is not sure about many future predictions. As usual different economists are of different views in the wake of Department of Labor Report. However, most of the economists are hopeful that economy would revive by virtue of 60% more
Monday, August 26, 2019
Life in the Digital Age - Essay Example The development resulted in data transmission methods that had significantly faster speeds than the pre-existent methods of data transmission. In the end, the technology provided a fast and reliable method of communication that served as an alternative to the analogue communication tools of the day. Its pros facilitated its application in most of the communication of the world today. Telecommunications, television broadcasts, digital printing, and other major communication methods rely on digital methods in message transmission. In the last two decades, the development has been fast tracked with new communication methods such as the internet, social media, and online sharing coming into being. These have enabled worldwide connectivity with unrestricted sharing of all kinds of information. This has yielded a lot of benefits that have helped significantly in the covering of major milestones in the goal of global development and security. However, according to Cathy Davidson in Now You See It, the use of digital technology has also resulted in the social phenomenon of the generation having a paradoxical obsession with implications associated with living in the digital age. This raises the question Ã¢â¬Å"do we need to rethink and restructure the organization of our institutions so as to maximize the results because of the situation of the digital era?Ã¢â¬ Technology availability In the United States, investments into the technology industry has seen the availability of technology increase many folds as the population wants to access information and utility sites like social media. A PISA survey in 2006 showed that among pupils in the 15-year age bracket, over 95% frequently used a computer at home (Gros 26). The projections of this survey show that in 2013 this is a universal feature. The survey found that most of the children prefer the internet to all other media. The universal access has increased the overall time spent on screens with most teenagers spendin g a large portion of their time on social networks and texting using various gadgets. Television and video games are also a huge part of the lives of the young generation of today. This extends to young children under the age of six who are also accustomed to dealing with technologies. This shows that the young generation is accustomed to and views technology as a necessity in their lives. The development and use of the forms of digital technology has therefore succeeded in influencing the society in viewing it as a necessary part of life with some in the young generation relying heavily on it. This means it is necessary to have institutions of learning that consider this aspect of the young generation (Davidson 12). In comparison, the organization of institutions of learning tends to uphold teaching and assessment models that do not serve the new generation of students facing challenges in learning to think critically in the information overload era. In response, Davidson proposes that changes be made to the systems of learning to embrace digital technology in a fluid and participatory manner. One way of achieving this is the use of digital game-based learning technologies. Digital game based learning Digital game based learning (DGBL) is a method of instruction that applies principles of learning or content that is educational in digital technology in the form of video games aiming at engaging the student ("Digital game-based
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Language development& early literacy in multilingual context - Essay Example In multilingual contexts, the learning experience and process of the first language significantly affects the acquisition of the second and other additional languages (Robertson and Nunn 2006). Basing on this, this essay tries to highlight the role of an early childhood practitioner in the learning process. It highlights the appropriate planning and implementation of the learning process in such contexts. This essay explains the childhood language learning process, together with the factors affecting language development. It also discusses the current approaches in childhood language learning and gives ways that can be used to improve the process. Before writing this essay, a number of ethical issues and confidentiality have been taken into account. The first thing that has been taken into account is to provide information that has no bias. This essay tries to provide practices and theories that can be used all over the world to better the learning process in early childhood learning centers. In addition to this, this essay cites all the sources from which the information used has been obtained. This will help readers to read more about the topic in case they need more inf ormation (Wang 2011). Language development at an early age is an important process and needs keen concern and support. It forms the foundation on which future language learning and literacy acquisition is build. The degree and ease with which children learn a language can also be a great predictor of future academic success and has many long-term implications in the social and economic sectors. This affects the development and interactivity of individuals in a family and in the society. Many things in the society affect language learning at an early age. This is because, during the learning process, a child always interprets information from the environment and forms his or her own perceptions of what language is and of how to
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Structure analysis for NEA - Essay Example President Barrack Obama has emerged revised policies to approach the challenges of VC fund flow structure of the country with appropriate revision of all existing norms to benefit the emerging companies. NEA environment of the liquidity of VCÃ¢â¬â¢s fund is described better by PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces which identifies five different constraints in the fund governance of an emerging company. Firstly, the status of a company needs to be largely approved and of a huge size of operation to enter into NEAÃ¢â¬â¢s investment stream. Legal formalities of many of the entrants become complicated as they need to produce assurance of liquidity to the investors. Secondly, the superior power of investors over the company stands on the way of its operation. Investors are usually very selective about the choice and manner of business. This rigidness is somehow dissolved in the gradual course of longer term of the investment and illiquidity of the fund owing to low growth rate of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s income. Another force that suspends the VCÃ¢â¬â¢s fund flow is threat of substitutes. Thus the entrepreneurÃ¢â¬â¢s power is seized by the influence of investors as they are the decisive force behind the work. At the foremost stage, the VC fund flow was largely hit by the rapid growth in low flexibility and illiquidity which resulted in unethical entry of rival groups in the operation of similar activities. In the trial of accumulating funds, more than 650 Funded Companies, over 165 IPOs and as many as 265 Mergers and Acquisitions were drawn in favor of the venture capital stream. Thus formation of enhanced capital funding from various fields encouraged the process of forming top 100 companies aligned with an NEA found opportunity for employing over 300000 people and gathered their efforts positively generate $100bn in annual revenues. A great achievement of NEA stream was that it associated over 65 investment
Friday, August 23, 2019
REFLECTION OF VALUES IN PRACTICE - Essay Example The scope of the work of a mental health nurse is vast and diverse. They can work in a number of settings like private homes, hospitals, nursing homes, and psychiatric wards. They have to coordinate their work and activities along with that of mental health specialists, workers, and therapists (Condon 14, 1992). My personal values deeply affect my work as a mental health nurse because of the reason that I have to care for patients who are suffering from chronic mental problems. I have to investigate and analyze the special needs of certain patients by solving their problems. I also have to ensure that services are provided efficiently and effectively to the patients. Respecting the patients involves the ability to create professional relationships with patients and their caregivers (Rassin 614, 2008). This can assist in the generation of trust and confidence between the nurse and patient (Pinch 372, 1985). Personal values can ensure the development of healthy relationships and mutual respect between the patient and nurses. Working in the team is very effective in developing my skills and knowledge as it allows the ability to deliver the correct treatment to the patients. It also ensures the rapid response to helping patients that suffer from depression and anxiety (Insaf 838, 2008). Approaching such patients requires patience and caution since they must not be threatened. Team work is essential for the mental health nurse because it allows the coordination and integration of activities which attempt to reduce or minimize problems or hazards faced at the work place. Therapy is a great tool for participating and working with groups as I believe it can reduce the emotional problems faced by many patients. As a team member, I also encourage the patients to engage in recreational or social events which help to develop their cognitive and social skills. It would also assist in the development of communication
Whirlpool Corporation - Essay Example Better sourcing or material management was becoming critical. 3. Market: The market was demanding and continuous to demand low cost and better products for the house hold sector. They looked for a better product but that had to come at a price lesser than the earlier one with lesser features. These key reasons made Whirlpool look for an enterprise wide automation. The material sourcing issues were reflected in the price of the components and also in the cost of the raw materials which in turn lent itself to an increase in the product price. This increase in the component and the raw material cost also wanted the products to be at the same price level or lower price level for end user customers. If this has to happen the operating cost has to come down and the total cost of production needs to get reduced. This could happen only if there is an increased quantities getting produced for the same inputs in terms of people and other consumables. In addition to these, the company also has to keep its new innovations always rolling out. Unless there are new ones coming up in the market, the company would lose its pre-eminence and would start trailing others as market leaders. This also the company cannot afford to happen. Cost reduction is one of the major issues that the company was fighting against. In order to bring down the cost of production, it is important that the company follows the latest material management techniques and also take recourse to global sourcing of components from the places that are cheaper vis-Ã -vis the current suppliers. The company therefore, had to source material from Asian countries and these vendors had to be coordinated and monitored to ensure Kanban pull working on the stock systems already in place. Therefore, a system that would unite the materials management in US or European factories and that of the vendor companies located
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Use of database Essay Computer technology has given many precious gifts to mankind. One of them is the database technology. It has made administration, trade and commerce very easy, precise and fast. Operations which used to take long time, and were still full of errors, are now managed in few seconds, and are cent percent free of errors. At the heart of this remarkable success is the software program, which helps creation, segmentation , categorization and retrieval of databases. These programs are known as database management systems, DBMS programs have a long history. Starting from very simple programs in 1960s they have developed into large, complex software packages like Oracle. While the management functions remain the same, the utility value and the facilities offered in newer versions differ vastly from their predecessors. This essay briefly analyzes the DBMS program used in a particular department of an organization and proposes hoe improvements could be made over the existing use of DBMS program. The organization is a market research agency. One of the departments is pharmaceutical research. The function of this department is to gather prescriptions of doctors from various geographic locations across the country, analyze the symptoms, diagnosis and the drugs prescribed by the Doctor. These prescriptions are codified according to standardized international codes. Based on this coding, a generalized report is then prepared, which specifies which drug is used more in a given geographic location. This market research is very important to pharmaceutical companies for devising their marketing strategies. Here, the database program used for coding the symptoms, diagnosis and drugs is taken as an example for analysis. First, the function of coding is explained with an example. Visits a doctor with a complaint of soar throat and difficulty in swallowing, coupled with fever. According to the directory of codes of symptoms of the company, symptom Ã¢â¬Ësoar throatÃ¢â¬â¢ has a code 3323, Ã¢â¬Ëdifficulty in swallowingÃ¢â¬â¢ has a code 1018 and Ã¢â¬ËfeverÃ¢â¬â¢ has a code 1286. If the doctor diagonizes Ã¢â¬Ë throat infectionÃ¢â¬â¢ as the cause for these symptoms, the code for it, as specified by WHO is J029. (ICD-10). Now, the doctor prescribes Ã¢â¬Ë MOX-500Ã¢â¬â¢ capsules, a drug which has Amoxycillin as its main content. The code of this drug is 05377-73, as per the company specification. Those who do this coding job have to frequently refer to each code. The sum total of symptoms, diagnosis and drugs runs into a few thousand entries. Manual reference to these codes is very cumbersome. A database management program is designed to aids the coders. The package used is Foxpro. It is a two way system, wherein, the code could be traced if the name is given as an input and the name is given as an output if the number is given as an input. So, the coder can trace the code from any name and conversely, the name can also be traced with the help of a numeric code. Like all the DOS based programs, this program is a very robust program, and easy to use. Name to Number program : This program contains all the data related to the symptoms, diagnosis and the drugs. While the name and its respective code are the main parameters displayed, the drug table also reveals the type of drug e. g. syrup. Tablet, capsule, injection etc and its respective capacities e. g. 5 ml, 200mg etc. Being a DOS based program, the database is indexed by the computer, each time it is accessed. The key command for a new entry are Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬Ëalt-sÃ¢â¬â¢ keys on the keyboard. Even if the full name is not types, the program takes to the alphabetically ordered names of the data. For example, if only Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËsoarÃ¢â¬â¢ is typed as a new entry, the program gives and output of the first entry, out of all the entries starting from alphabets Ã¢â¬ËsoarÃ¢â¬â¢, or just typing Ã¢â¬Ë penÃ¢â¬â¢ will take the user to the first entry alphabetically listed with Ã¢â¬ËpenÃ¢â¬â¢ as the first three letters. The cursor needs to be taken down to locate the drug Ã¢â¬ËpenicillinÃ¢â¬â¢. Instructions regarding the keyboard controls for retrieval of information, traverse of the cursor and exit from the program are permanently displayed at the bottom of the screen. These are the read only features. This means only three operations are possible on the program by the coder. Either he can type a name and get the code, or he can traverse the cursor or he can exit. It bears typical resemblance to the Ã¢â¬Ë WordStarÃ¢â¬â¢ program, where the controls for operations were displayed whenever the program used to start. It is a completely textual program, simply because the basic software package, Foxpro/ Dos version, did not offer any GUI facilities. Like all other DOS based programs, colors are non existent in this program. It is a black and white screen throughout its use. Number name program : Many times the coder need a reverse retrieval to be performed. That is, given a number, the corresponding name of the symptom, diagnosis and the drug is to be traced. This program offers this facility also. When the number is entered, its validity is checked and if it is a correct number corresponding to the database, then the name of the drug, diagnosis or the symptom is given out as an output. In the case of drug display, the other parameters like the type e. g. syrup, tablet, capsule etc are also displayed. This part also has all the features and limitations typically associated with a DOS based program. This program, even in its present form, based on the technology of early 1990s is extremely useful to the coders. Especially when it comes to coding few hundred prescriptions every day, this program helps in a speedy and precise coding procedure. The codes are written manually by the coder on a printed form on paper. Improvements: Several improvements are not only possible on the current system but it is a necessary demand of time. First, Windows Ã¢â¬â 98 is soon expiring as the last GUI operating system which can support DOS based applications. The next most popular OS, Windows-XP does not support DOS based applications. Even the new and latest processors like the Dual Core by Pentium and motherboards, do not support Windows-98. Hence, technically, it will be impossible to run this program, the latest computers. It is the demand of time, that a Windows based DBMS used. This can be MS Access, Foxpro/ Win, or Oracle, but a switch over to GUI based application development is a must. Second, the codes, after being retrieved, are written manually. A new application needs to be developed, wherein the need to write the codes separately on a different sheet is eliminated. The coder inserts the name of the symptom, diagnosis or the drug and the corresponding number of the code should be automatically entered in the blank format of the form. The concept of relational database comes into picture over here. The database needs to be related to many blank forms, in such a way that a new form comes on the screen no sooner one is over. As soon as the name is typed in the form, the code must be retrieved by the software and entered in the form. The third factor is to add the utility value of the program. The same program can be extended to keep a record of the name of the coder who has accessed this program and the amount of work done by him/her. This feature facilitates speedy calculation of the monetary remuneration to be given to the coder. A record of signing in time and sign out time will also tell how much time the coder has put in. This record would be useful to gauge the efficiency of the coder. Seeing to the requirements of the improved version, a switch over to Oracle is more desirable, for the versatility and flexibility it offers. One more issue arises out of this discussion. Is the development in computers heading in the right direction? Despite all the progress in the software industry, no program has been able to replace the Ã¢â¬Ë command. comÃ¢â¬â¢ file of DOS. All versions of Windows also rely upon DOS for their booting functions. Similarly, coders do not have any problem with the program they are working at present, which is over a decade old. The basic question is: Is all the development necessary? Or is it that needs are first created and then devices are made to suffice them? Or is it that under the umbrella of Ã¢â¬Ëuser friendlyÃ¢â¬â¢ Bill Gates has prevented people from getting to know the inner aspects of a computer? A calculator was a good invention, but has it always helped mankind? Has it not put limitations on the mental calculating capacities? Our ancestors had no problems in adding 40 numbers , fast and precise. For the present generation it is impossible. The developments in computers, have reduced the computer, a PC, to a mere entertainment tool, and the internet has become a tool for chat and social networking for a vast majority of users. Any development is real only if it helps in sharpening of minds, not rusting it !!!
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
E Books To Replace College Textbooks E-learning is today gaining serious grounds as most institutions of learning are fast adopting e-learning methods and techniques, at the same time doing away with the manual learning technique which involves text books in institutions/Universities. With the advent of e-books, textbooks are fast becoming obsolete as Hellman revealed that, it is even more economical using e-books than textbooks as it saves time (11). Methodically, it is observed that it is more economical to acquire E-books than a manual textbook. The general cost of acquiring an E-book is much cheaper or less than a text book. Experts advise that it is much more economical to use e-books in a learning process than textbooks. One can save more when using E-books than when using textbooks. Today, E-books are generally accepted as the generality of students studying in various institutions would prefer to save for other purposes, if they discover that it is cheaper than acquiring a manual textbook. The possibility of the se E-books is another aspect that makes it very feasible to use than the manual textbooks. With the availability of electronic gadgets like the I-Pad, Palm tops and other electronic devices that can effectively aid reading has made the use of E-books feasible and has given it an edge over the manual textbooks, especially considering its cost. Table of Content Page No. Executive Summary.. 1 Introduction . 4 Portability . 5 Cost . 6 Availability 7 Method 7 Data . 8 Conclusion 8 Recommendation.. 9 Works Cited. 10 Introduction The e-book is just a literary work in a different form from the textbook, it is only a digital object that is composed of one or more standard and distinctive identifiers, broad databases as well as monographic body of content that is directed towards published books and accessed through electronic devices. Indiviglio explained that, both the textbooks and e-books receive the same content provided in print textbooks together with their print page numbers for note-taking as well as communication features that can only be obtainable through the internet Students are capable of printing out the pages they require at any particular time. Values in the e-book arena are being developed in five key areas that include e-book formats, digital right management format, digital audio formats, digital rights management systems as well as distribution and promotion. Each of these has an appealing technological aspect, but they are also motivating in terms of the stakeholders who encourage them. Th e internet has allowed us to take full benefit of the accessibility and user-friendly resources obtainable to us. Today, it sure seem like the era of manual textbooks have enjoyed their stay and rule in the learning process, now, the e-book is taking its turn and dominating the learning process. Besides that, at the beginning of fall semester, there is always a plan on how one spends his money and aside food and beer, a greater percentage of funds are always channelled to pounds and pounds of textbooks. Lately, e-readers have decided to set free college students from heaving anything to do with bundles of pages of manual textbooks that most of them drag home from the bookstore at the commencement of every semester. Melissa explained that, from Amazons Kindle DX to Barnes Nobles Nook and even the I-Pad, an age group of digital readers have pledged to restore overflowing backpacks filled with stuffy textbooks with a portable, lightweight slate loaded with every required book one will ever need for the whole semester or even for every semester (Melissa). But can one just go and download the books that are vital for class at that particular time? How expensive are they? Before one would consider going for an e-book, they should note that, the portability, the cost, and availability at any particular time is very critical. Portability Learning process is quite a task; therefore no one would want to make learning more difficult, but simple. Hoofing textbooks to class like a hunch back in most cases is quite a difficult task. Having 30 pounds of textbooks drooping off ones back in a bag that looks like it is about to crack at the seams, the spine definitely surfers (Melisa 23). However, rather than hoof over 30 pounds on the back, when there is an option of a portable e-book reader. Instead of 30 pounds, it will be preferably to use the e-reader in a device that is normally as portable as a magazine. Reading devices like the Kindle DX weigh about 1.1 pounds, while the I-Pad is just about 1.5 pounds. It is observed that, when assessing the cost of e-books they cannot be sold, which strikes a most important drive against any form of media that a lot of people would only presume converting directly to beer money once they are done using that book. However, another important note is that, the E-book cannot be borrowed, unlike the manual textbook. E-books cannot be lent and be destroyed on returned (Bilton). The plan or idea of splitting between two friends is not applicable to e-book and with this feature; the e-book can be preserved for a very long period of time and it also saves cost. Several e-readers claim that, e-book lending is permitted, but this is not quite true. On the other hand, one can lend an e-book, only if the publisher permits it and for a given time period of 14 days and just once ever, for the existence of the book. Some patents do not allow the borrowing of e-books, once an individual buys, it can be tattooed or customized to the individuals taste as nobody else will have right of use to that book except the owner. Cost The internet is a medium or house for enormous potential with several useful functions that are conveniently used to assist people save money in the long run. In this paper, the cost of acquiring e-books and textbooks when compared is much cheaper than textbooks. When discussing the expenses of books in relation to college students, Bilton states that, but it is a very important cost. The average public university student spends $1,122 per year on books, according to the College Board (E-Books: A New School of Thought). Normally, this cost annually is for a public college student which is the least when comparing with a private university student. Comparatively, this is quite expensive relative to E-Books currently selling for $3 to $7 range (Indiviglio). This to a great extent proves the overbearing cost of text, excluding the tuition fee. Students who buy e-books pay significantly less than the cost of either used or new books, with an average savings of about $60, the advantages can extend when the universities decide to select digitally (Hellman 14). Students at the University System of Pennsylvania, for instance, are enjoying great value at a great price, now that the university system has partnered with Course Smart. Course Smart is an online bookstore that bears over 90% of all major textbooks used in Higher Education today as E-Textbooks. The objective is to achieve this particular goal of benefiting as a university, and also acquiring the personal gain that comes with using it (Hellman 14). Availability Today, it really looks like the textbook is more available than the e-book, but no, that is quite not true. E-books require just the electronic devices and the printing it online and not on paper like the textbooks. The textbook requires printing on paper which is extremely expensive. Paper is made from wood that is supposed to be used in other meaningful economic means, but rather waste it on printing textbooks that will get rot after a period of time (Indiviglio). But the e-book is always accessible and can be preserved over a long period of time; it can also be referenced whenever the need arises without it being depleted like the printed textbooks. This really makes the e-book more available than the printed textbooks. Method Today, the e-book has made the very expensive competitive and would soon be decided whether it will continue at its high rates or not, the I-pad and the Apples e-learning devices will cost less than taking a whole pile of textbooks. For instance, Mokey asserted that various schedules supported on books could make a University freshman consider whether he really need it for different introductory courses, he will rather get to consider how much he will be expected to spend on e-books than his normal printed textbooks. After drawing his plans, he will get to decide whether to go for e-books as it will cost him far less than what textbooks will cost him. Though, money might not really be a great cause to look into an e-reader, a student will discover that, buying e-books will cost him less than getting printed textbooks from the stores, he will get to keep the e-books for a long period of time while the textbooks might get rotten over time. Mokey also cited that, two students went to sh op online in online stores, after buying from a normal book store to compare prices; they observed that, the online shopping was far cheaper than the textbooks gotten from the book store. Data When comparing different brands, it is observed that between hefty textbooks and the new e-reader, the e-books can save a full pack. For example, writing systematically would cost about $66.50 brand new textbooks from the US book store, while a simple download of an e-book could cost just $46.30 on the Amazon and one will get a total savings of about $20.20 for just a single book (Bilton). Different factors in the used-book market and savings decline a little more like the portrait for instance. It is observed today in schools that, most students prefer to buy their books online, rather than go to normal stores and get printed textbooks for their learning. Data released from a survey monitoring students behaviour with the likes of books reveal that, the Apple I-Pad tablet is gradually dominating and it is already more popular than the other forms of textbooks used by students. But the easy accessibility to textbooks makes some school administrators question the effectiveness of the e -reader. Also, the resale value of e-books when compared generally reveals that, it is more economical to textbooks. Advantages One of the main advantages of the e-book is the low cost. There are no printing, storage, or postal fees involved with e-books, therefore the product is produced at a lower cost. This is an advantage for the production company and the consumer. Traditional textbook costs have been an ongoing problem for college students worldwide. In an effort to follow the trend of textbooks rising cost, it was found that the average prices rose 186 percent between 1986 and 2005, and continue to shoot up each year far faster than inflation (Jeffrey Young). This price increase has taken on toll on many students pockets with a cost of more than 80 dollars per book on average. In an article discussing the expenses of books in relation to college students, Baumann states, Its a significant cost. The average full-time public university student spends $1,122 per year on books, according to the College Board (Ebooks: A New School of Thought). This is more than twice the amount e-books users are spending. S tudents who purchase e-books pay substantially less than the cost of either new or used books, with an average savings of about $60 per book. That is a huge saving, especially for those who already struggle to pay for their tuition and books. Our objective is to maximize students savings by more than 50 percent. The update function is also an important advantage that the e-book holds. The e-book allows for instant updating of outdated material without having to purchase new material. Traditional textbooks are available in several editions, because the authors continue to add new findings. Since the e-books are a part of an electronic database the information is easily accessed for renewal. This prevents the students from having to purchase new editions, with minute differences from past editions, but sold for a higher cost. This is a factor because if the textbook is a new edition used books arent available; therefore the student must purchase the new book at the full inflated cost. Other advantages of the e-book are the convenience, weight riddance, saving trees, and the bookmarking, highlighting, annotating and search capabilities. E-books are typically purchased and download from the internet; therefore this may be done from home. That saves time for students who may work full-time or half congested scheduled. Also bookstores are known to have long lines causing long wait times. This time constraint could be eliminated with the convenience of purchasing the e-book at your own leisure. Along with that advantage is the withdrawal of carrying these books. Textbooks weight can be overbearing, especially when a student is carrying four to five books at one time. Some books, particularly for economics or the hard sciences, can weigh up to seven lbs. each. This proves that the baggage can get physically exhausting. On the other hand the e-book is baggage free, if assuming students will access information from school. If others choose to carry and alternate device, s uch as a laptop or kindle, it still would not amount to half the weight of carrying even two traditional textbooks. Using the type of devices also saves trees. According to ecology.com, Nearly 4 billion trees or 35% of the total trees cut around the world are used in paper industries. The one-third percent of trees cut down for paper could drastically decrease with the ebook conversion. The environmental friendly paper alternative could be vital to our health and the environment. Although the ebook can be printed if preferred, this is a matter of personal choice. The ebook proves to be environmentally and economically sound. In addition to contributing to the environment, these devices also have capabilities that textbooks does not. They hold the options of bookmarking, highlighting, annotating and searching through text. These are means that could make studying easier. It saves time and relieves the difficulty of searching through material for needed information. Bookmarking, annot ating, and highlighting text is also useful for preserving thoughts and ideas, and organization. This helps maintain a trouble-free studying experience with just a click. Disadvantages The main disadvantage of the e-book is the concern of eyestrain and accessibility. The display resolution of computer screens and electronic devices is considerably less than the print quality produced by a printing press; therefore viewing the material electronically is believed to be a strain on the eyes. This can cause discomfort to the reader which could discourage study habits. The chair of the ophthalmology department at the University of North Carolina disagrees with this notion and went on to explain that it is not the screen causing the strain, but suggest its a variety of other factors that can cause physical fatigue (Dr. Travis Meredith). He then went on to further explain the problem and suggest a solution to the problem. Dr. Meredith states, the ergonomics of reading screens and the lack of blinking when we stare at them play a big role in eye fatigue. The current problem with reading on screens is that we need to adjust our bodies to our computer screens, rather than th e screens adjusting to us. This is something that students should consider when seeking comfort while studying. Another solution to this problem would be using the print option offered. Most e-books offer the option to print text, therefore the student is afforded the option to print the necessary text needed when studying for extended periods of time. This choice integrates the two study habits for the small fee of printing the pages needed. This function is also a solution to the issue of accessibility. Some students do not have access to the needed devices to access the e-books outside of school, others worry of not having ready access to the text in classrooms when needed. Those students could simply print the text from school libraries for home use. This enables the student to have the luxury of both electronic and printed text, if necessary. Other disadvantages of the e-book are the durability and battery-life. E-book readers are more susceptible to damage from being dropped or hit than a print book. This can become a problem when toting around electronic devices. When students are carrying around such sensitive equipment extra precautions should be taken. As with any piece of technology, the reader must be protected from the elements (such as extreme cold, heat, water, etc.). To ensure caution is taken students should protect the device with the proper cover. There is covered protection available to protect against these issues. If an instance occurs that the device is damaged, students may access the information from the online database it was originally purchased from. This solution is also useful to in case of data loss and other hardware or software malfunctions. In addition to the durability problem is the issue of the battery-life. Most laptops and other electronic devices have a battery life of three to four hour s. This may become a problem if the student is mobile with the device. In a situation such as this, students should carry a secondary battery as a back-up or bring along a charger. Most public places have available outlets and are equipped with free Wi-Fi for the purpose of studying and searching the web. This promotes positive study habits from practically anywhere. Conclusion The accessibility and familiarity provided by Apple, Pc and Macintosh computers is a very exciting one that will keep the use of e-books for a longer existence than the textbooks. Having had a great deal of experience through school, I strongly believe that, no knowledge is wasted and at the same time it is much easier to use e-books than it is to use textbooks. In my final school year, I decided I was going to use only e-books and that helped me greatly as I save a lot of money, got easy access to e-books than when I used to buy text books for my studies. Recommendation Today I am very familiar with e-books and nothing has been easier than using e-books for learning purposes. Therefore, I strongly recommend e-books for students in schools today as it saves time; it is easily accessible and always available as well as cost effective.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
An Analysis Of Business And Financial Performance Of Tesco Finance Essay INTRODUCTION 1.1Topic Chosen This research and analysis report is about The business and financial performance of Tesco plc over a three year period from an investors point of view. The analysis will be carried out by looking at the key ratios, past trend and other important aspects with an aim to serve the current and prospective future investors in making investment decision. Quantative analysis which is based on financial aspects cannot give always the true picture so this analysis is also look at the non financial measures. J Sainsbury, one of the close competitor in UK has been chosen to compare with the Tesco plc to make the analysis more meaningful. Reason for the topic chosen As I am interested in analysing Business and financial performance in my previous studies so I have chosen this topic 8. This report will give me an opportunity to enhance my knowledge and chance to test my analytical skill. The reason for choosing Tesco for this research and analysis project is because I am always interested in retail sector and one of the most successful company in retail sector is Tesco in UK .Tesco currently hold more than 30% market share in UK with leading in supermarket (Douglas Hamilton, www.heraldscotland.com 15th Sep. 2010). Tesco is one of the fastest growing successful supermarket despite of many rivalry in same sector. Due to the fact of closest competitor J Sainsbury which is the third largest supermarket with market share around 16%, is chosen to compare the Business and Financial performance of Tesco. Tesco which used to be a food retail market is now expanding its territory of business from food retailer to various products under one roof such as furniture, electronic, mobile, financial services etc. The another expansion of Tesco will be the Tesco Bank (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/40d7a0dc-c5af-11df-ab48-00144feab49a.html). Sir Terry Lee Promise to build the peoples bank by capitalising on public disillusionment with traditional lender (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/40d7a0dc-c5af-11df-ab48-00144feab49a.html). Another reason that attract me toward Tesco which used to be the UKs supermarket once is now expanding around more than 13 countries around the world (UK, USA, China, India, South Korea, Japan, Including other Asian countries and some European countries). Tesco is opening its store making suitable to where it open just like its open in Indian as cash and carry in joint venture with Tata group the Indian largest business group (http://www.tescoplc.com/plc/ir/rns/rnsitem?id=1218521062nRnsL1207Bt=popup_rns August 12, 2008). As we know USA is one of the challe nging market for UKs supermarket Tesco admitted that they go wrong on early market research and they may makes big changes in stores (The Sunday Times, February 22, 2009). As Tesco sets its three challenging long term targets towards community: to become a zero-carbon business by 2050; to reduce the carbon impact of the products in supply chain by 30% by 2010; and to help the customers halve their own carbon footprint by 2020; in which they are making good progress. Tesco opens the worlds first zero-carbon supermarket in Ramsey, Cambridgeshire in 2010 (http://www.tescoplc.com/plc/about_us/tesco_story/). Tesco is growing consistently outside UK as well. Tesco chairman David Reid told in annual report 2010 about its growth in South Korea and china Our acquisition in South Korea is performing well and delivering excellent results, weve opened our first three Tesco Lifespace shopping malls in China and we have made good progress building the infrastructure and developing new products f or Tesco Bank. This gives us idea that how Tesco is going to tackle in abroad. Tesco is one of the successful and adaptable business with different products in any area around the world. The diversity and complexity of the business attract me to analysis the business and financial position of Tesco. 1.3 Aims Objectives The aim of the report is to research and analysis the business and financial position of Tesco from the investor point of view. As we know investors are risks adverse so investors want to know risks and return of the investment to make decision. For this investors are always want to know not only the financial data but also the companys strategic plans, market in which they operate and the trend in the outside world. Therefore Ive made the comparison between same industry businesses which give reasonable recommendation the best investment decision. Therefore the report objectives are: To analyses past and current position of Tesco To compares 3 years performance with J Sainsbury To analyses the reason for diversified market To analyses the long term financial sustaintibility of both companies. To analyses the short term liquidity stability of both companies To analyses the market shares of both companies. To analyses the strategic plan and the factors which benefits and detriment the companies from external and internal using SWOT analysis. RATIO ANALYSIS The following financial key ratios analysis has been performed during the research project: which formulae are in the appendix: Growth Analysis: Sales revenue growth Profitability: Gross profit margin Net profit margin Asset activity ratio Return on capital employed Stability ratio Gearing ratio Interest cover ratio Liquidity ratio: Current ratio Quick ratio Investors Ratio: Earning /share Dividend /share Price / Earnings Ratio Efficiency Measures: Net asset turnover Return on total assets The some non-financial analysis of Tesco is also performed. Such as: SWOT analysis Strategic analysis 2. INFORMATION GATHERING 2.1 Sources Used and Reason Annual accounts of Tesco and Sainsbury: Financial statements is the main source that help me to calculate financial ratios and analysis the trend of past three years which help to find out the financial conditions, changes and improvements over the three years from 2007-2010. For comparison annual accounts of both companies data are used from their website. Annual report of Tesco and Sainsbury: Annual report of both companies is the source of financial statement which enables to calculate different financial ratios and analysis the trend of past three years for the period 2007-2010 which help us to understand the financial conditions trends, improvements and changes over periods. For comparison annual report of both companies are used which are available from their website.Ã Newspaper and Journal: Newspaper and Journal are significant sources which provide information regarding share price, market conditions, competitors activities, market surveys etc. The article provides shareholders the most recent analytical and other information so makes them easy to make investment decision. Financial newspapers just like Financial Times, The Sunday Times, Guardian, City AM, Metro, Evening Standard are helpful for the research. Text Book: The ACCAs text books F7 (Financial Reporting), F9 (Financial Management), P2 (Corporate Reporting), P3 (Business Analysis) and other business analysed text books are used to gather source of information which help to give ideas about ratio calculations and analyse the business performance using different method such as SWOT, strategic analysis. They also give theoretical knowledge to do financial and non-financial interpretation of the company. Ã Interim Report: The interim report provides the current news and seasonality information on business performance of the company. The reports are reviewed by the external auditor as the requirement of London Stock Exchange because they are unaudited report. They are easily available on companys website for download. ACCA Student account magazine: The monthly published Student Accountant by the ACCA which help us in understanding the knowledge, research and analysed the report through different articles published specially on Technical Section.Ã Oxford Brookes Universitys research and analysis project guidelines: The Oxford Brookes link on ACCA website is very useful through the research project which gives guidelines about writing report such as format, content, and many others. Store visit: During the research, store visit gives me ideas about the current and future plans of both companies to meet their objectives such as price cut by introducing buy one get one free or half price scheme. 2.2 Methods used to collect information Library visit: The library research involves collecting data through secondary resources such as newspapers, books, press reports etc. I also visited the City Business Library for collecting financial data of both companies over past three years. City Business Library provides online resource collection centre such as Financial Analysis Made Easy (FAME) which contain the information about listed companies in UK and Ireland. I used FAME to get the detail information over three years of Tesco Plc and J Sainsbury Plc. That provides information about annual account, key ratios, market share and trends over past years. Website research: The officially release data such as financial statement, recent business strategy, press releases and interim results of both companies were directly obtained through the companies websites i.e.Ã www.tescocorporate.comÃ andÃ www.j-sainsbury.co.ukÃ . For the independent data and information the following websites were helpful which provides relevant latest news and information about both companies. The websites are: www.bbc.co.uk www.londonstockexchange.com www.ft.com www.guardian.co.uk www.telegraph.co.uk www.heraldscotland.com www.timesonline.co.uk www.google.co.uk 2.3 Limitation to information: The ratio calculated is based on past data so do not give clear view about company future performance. The ratio calculation is based on companies annual account. Company prepares its account to show they are in good position (may use creative accounting), to attract more investors. So it may not be the best way to make investment decision. The secondary source of data does not provide the sufficient information about the company as a whole which just help for surface performance analysis. 3. ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION Overview Tesco plc was established with the name Tesco by Jack Cohen in 1919 which became floating company in 1947 with share price of 25p.But now Tesco is one of the largest supermarkets based on national and international market. Tesco has a well-established and consistent strategy for growth, which has allowed it to strengthen its core UK business and drive expansion into new markets. The rationale for the strategy is to broaden the scope of the business to enable it to deliver strong sustainable long-term growth by following the customer into large expanding markets at home such as financial services, non-food and telecoms and new markets abroad, initially in Central Europe and USA , and now also in the Asian countries such as India, China (www.tesco.co.uk). J. Sainsbury is a leading UK based food retailer with interest in financial services. The group is listed on London stock exchange and its headquartered in Holborn, London. It has been the market leader for much of 20th century in UK and in 1995 Tesco took its place and in 2003 it was pushed to third place by Asda. We now analysis the performance of Tesco comparing with Sainsbury below: 3.1 GROWTH ANALYSIS 3.1.1 SALES REVENUE GROWTH Tesco Tescos revenue have been increasing 4.54% compare with year 2009 (Ã £54,327m) to year 2010 (Ã £56,910m). But in 2009 (Ã £54,326), the growth is 12% as compared to 2008 (Ã £47,298). This is due to the develop market in previous year in early 2007 help the Tesco to generate more revenue in 2009 and 2010. In 2010, the world suffers from the recession due to that the growth is not so much. The sales in international market are up by 8.8% to Ã £19.4 billion (2010) as compared to 17.69 billion (2009). The sale in core UK is up by 4.2% in 2010. (http://ar2010.tescoplc.com/~/media/Files/T/Tesco-Annual-Report-2009/Attachments/pdf/Full-Review.pdf). The increase in revenue was due to the increase in sales of healthy foods products and non-food products which grows almost twice as fast as the rest of the business. Tesco one of the largest online seller supermarket in the world generates Ã £136millions profit from online sales (http://www.nma.co.uk/news/tesco-reports-%C2%A3136m-profit-from- online-sales/3012439.article ). Sainsbury Sainsburys revenue have also been in increasing trend with Ã £19,964 m during 2010, an increase of 4% over 2009(Ã £18,911) and increase of 11% over 2008(Ã £17,837) which is overall less than Tescos revenue growth. This is due to tough competition between competitors like Tesco, ASDA, and Morrison and the global recession. 3.1.2 PROFITABILITY MEASURES (i) Gross profit margin Tesco The gross profit margin has been increasing gradually over three years from 2008-2010 from 7.67% to 8.1%. The gross profit in 2008 is Ã £3,630m which increase in 2009 to Ã £4,218m with (7.76%-7.67%) only 0.09% growths than previous year and in 2010 further increase to Ã £4,607m which is (8.1%-7.76%) is 0.34% increase than previous year. The increase was due to the high sales, good productivity and good control in the cost of sales expenses. Sainsbury The gross profit margin of Sainsbury has been decreased from 5.62% in 2008 to 5.48% in 2009 even there was little increase in sales due to high cost of sales expenses. In year 2010 the gross profit margin further decrease to 5.42% was due to there is no control over cost of sales expenses. Even the sales revenue seems little bit more they may be due to price inflation but not the increase in sales. The gross profit margin of both companies is mostly affected by global economic recession but Tesco is doing quite well. Sainsbury find itself in difficult probably due to high competition with other high street supermarket like Asda, Morrison, and Somerfield. (ii) Net Profit Margin Tesco For the three years period Tesco is doing very good net profit margin is as compared to that of Sainsbury but there is decrease of profit from 2008 to 2010. There is high decrease in profit margin in 2009 mainly due to administration expenses and absorption of initial operating loss in Tesco direct and also due to the unseasonal weather in summer. There is also some impact of establishing of US store. But later in 2010 its going through little increase in profit margin which shows Tesco is in recovery stage. Sainsbury The net profit margin of Sainsbury has decreased little bit to 2.46% in 2009 as compared to the 2008. But in the 2010 the net profit margin has been very good with the increase of (3.67%-2.46%) 1.21% which was mainly due to the increased finance income from the bank deposit and return from pension scheme and good control over expenses. 3.1.3 Assets activity ratio (i) Return on capital employed (ROCE) Tesco Tescos return on capital employed (ROCE) has better than Sainsbury over three years. But while looking at Tesco only there is huge decreased of ROCE over three years from 14.08% in 2008 to 10.58% in 2010. That is due to the investment in new stores and new market development in order to gain. In 2009 to 2010 the ROCE is slightly increased which seems Tesco will again increased its performance. Sainsbury Sainsburys ROCE has been increased in the three years period time from 6.03% in 2008 to 9.09% in 2010. The increased was mainly due to effective cost control and also due to the increase net profit margin. 3.1.4. Stability Ratios (i) Gearing Ratio Gearing ratio measures the stability of the company for the long term. In simple, its the measure of long term debt as a percentage of equity. The company is more risky as the gearing increases because highly geared company have to pay the high interest on loans and also they dont have the ability to borrow more for any investment opportunity. Tesco Tescos gearing ratio was 149.14% in 2009 which is much more than 2008 which is only 87.06% which was due to the increased in borrowing for investment in international stores. But in 2010 Tesco has repaid its some of its debt so there is decrease in gearing. Sainsbury Sainsburys gearing ratio was also increased to 66.09% in 2009 from 44.54% in 2008 due to increased in debt and also decreased in shareholder fund. But in 2010 Sainsburys gearing slightly decrease to 63.81% because of repayment of its some debts and constant growth in shareholder fund. (ii) Interest Cover Ratio (ICR) The interest cover ratio calculates the number of times the profit before interest and tax can cover the interest (finance) costs. The company with higher interest cover is better, because there is lower financial risk. Tesco The interest cover ratio of Tesco is better than Sainsbury but while looking at its own previous year Tesco interest cover ratio is decreasing from 12.21times in 2008 to 6.49 times in 2010. This is due to high borrowing for investment plan and low profit increase. Tesco is still in better position to cover its finance cost and will be in best position when the todays investment starts to generate profit. Sainsbury Sainsbury is doing well in interest cover even there was little decrease in 2009 to 4.15 time from 4.63 in 2008 because there is decrease in profit. But in 2010 Sainsbury interest cover ratio increased 1.80 times than 2009 to 5.95 times because of increased in profit and also decrease in borrowing interest. 3.1.5 Liquidity Ratios (i) Current Ratio The current ratio gives an indication of company ability to meet its short term obligation with its working capital and continue trading. The higher the current ratio, the better the company position because there is sufficient liquid to cope with short term financial obligation. The standard current ratio should be 2:1.This rule does not fit for supermarket because as the supermarket do not want to hold high stock to avoid wastage and holding cost. Secondly there are negligible trade debtor but high trade creditors to whom they delay payment. Tesco Tescos current ratio has been increasing from 0.61 times in 2008 to 0.78 times in 2009 because of increase in stock level. But the current ratio in2010 is decrease as compared to 2009 to 0.73 times because of increase in trade creditors, short term loans, overdraft etc. The current ratio of Tesco is far below the standard rate of 2:1 because supermarket like Tesco does not want to hold more stock and nil debtors. Sainsbury Sainsbury current ratio was decrease in 2009 to 0.54 times from 0.66 times in 2008 because of low stock level and increase in short term loans. But Sainsbury again return to 0.66 times current ratio in 2010 because of increase in stock level and repayment of short term loans. (ii) Quick Ratio Quick ratio is also called acid ratio because it eliminate the stocks from the current asset and calculate the companys ability to pay off short term liability with its liquid assets. Ideally the standard ratio should be 1:1. Tesco Tescos quick ratio is increase in 2009 to 0.63 times from 0.38 times in 2008. And again fall to 0.56 times in 2010. This is much lower than average. This shows that Tesco cant able to cover its current liability with its current asset without stocks. But the nature of current asset and current liabilities in Tescos does not seem to have any liquidity problems. Sainsbury Sainsburys quick ratio is almost same over three years with slightly decrease in 2009 to 0.3 times from 0.4 times in 2008. But in 2010 again return to 0.4 times which is much lower than average rate. The consistency of ratios shows that there is no liquidity problems in Sainsbury. 3.1.6. Investor Ratios (i) Basic Earnings per Share (EPS) EPS ratio indicates the returns per shares from the investors point. Tesco Tescos EPS has been increasing gradually over three years from 26.95p in 2008 to 27.14p in 2009 and 29.33p in 2010. This is because of high profit. Sainsbury The EPS of Sainsbury is not seems so smooth as there is decrease in 2009 to 16.6p from 19.1 in 2008. But in 2010 there is nearly double increase to 32.1p. This shows the volatility in the relation to the shareholders. (ii) Dividend per Share (DPS) Tesco Tescos dividend per share has been increased to from 10.90p per share in 2008 to 11.96p in 2009 and 13.5p in 2010 which means Tesco is doing well to its shareholders. The main reason behind the increase in dividend per share is due to increase in net profit mainly from the national and international market sales growth. Sainsbury Sainsbury is also doing quite well in dividend per share which has been increase from 12.0p per share in 2008 to 13.2p in 2009 and 14.2p per share in 2010. From investor point of view Sainsbury is doing better than Tesco in dividend per share. As we know dividend per share were made internal from the company so they may contain false information to attract investors thats why investor should not concern on it. iii) Share price 1source: tescoplc.com Figure 1 share price movement of Tesco and Sainsbury Tesco share price is better than its rival Sainsbury over 3 years times. As we see from the figure Tesco share price on 26/2/2008 was 409.25p where as Sainsbury was only 368.50p on the same day. But the next year the both companies share price decrease due to the economy fall. In 27/2/2009 Tesco share price was only 338.20p where as Sainsbury has 321.75p. In 26/2/2010 Tesco is doing better in share price with increase to 422.40p with further increase in later in the year but the share price of Sainsbury fall down to 322.30p on the same day. Overall analysis As we see the trend of movement of share price of both companies it in decreasing trend with fluctuating economic condition. The decreasing trend is mostly due to the economic recession all over the world. From the starting of 2009, while there was a little bit start of recovery in world economy recession the share price of both companies are in increasing trend till now. But comparing the two companies it seems Tesco share price increase more rapidly as compare to Sainsbury because of the good performance of Tesco and the market strategy. iv) Price / Earnings (P/E) Ratio Price / Earnings ratio shows how much the investors are willing to pay per pound of earnings for a share. The high P/E indicates investors are expecting higher earnings growth in future. . Tesco The P/E has fall from 15.18 times in 2008 to 12.46 times in 2009 because of economic crisis but due to recovery in economy and good performance of Tesco, the price earnings ratio again goes up to 14.40 times in 2010. As compared to Sainsbury Tesco performance on last two years wasnot so good but in 2010 Tesco is doing quite well than Sainsbury. Sainsbury The P/E ratio of Sainsbury has risen a little bit in 2009 to 19.38 times as compare to 19.29 times in 2008. But in 2010 the P/E ratio fall dramatically to 10.40 times even there is going economy recovery in the world. The fall in P/E ratio seems not good for the company from the investor point of view as investor always willing higher earnings. 3.1.7 EFFICIENCY MEASURE i) Net asset turnover (NAT) The net asset turnover ratio represents the amount of revenue generated by the company as a result of its asset on hand. It measures how efficiently the company is operating. Tesco The net asset turnover of Tesco is decreasing over three years period from 2.38 times in 2008 to 1.94 times in 2009 due to massive investment in assets. Then there is a little bit decrease in net asset to 1.90 times which means the efficiency of asset is not quite good enough to generate the cash. Sainsbury Sainsburys NAT was quite good as compare to Tesco. There was also slightly increase in NAT from 2.54 times in 2008 to 2.66 times in 2009. But in 2010 again decrease to 2.48 times. The decrease in NAT may be due to saving investment in asset to cope with future economy crisis. ii) Return on total assets This ratio measuresÃ a companys earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) againstÃ its total net assets. The ratio is considered an indicator of how effectively a company is using its assets to generate earnings before contractual obligations must be paid. Tesco Return on total asset in Tesco has decreased to 6.49 times in 2009 from 9.29 times in 2008 because of more investment in fixed and current asset. But this ratio was increase to 6.90 times in 2010. Sainsbury Sainsbury Return on total asset was decrease in 2009 to 4.64 times from 4.98 times in 2008. But in 2010 its increase significantly to 6.75 times which seem far better as compare to previous year which is mainly due to increase in earning. 3.2. NON FINANCIAL ANALYSIS (i)SWOT Analysis: SWOT Analysis is the simplest of positioning company internal analysis by strength and weakness also external analysis by opportunities and threats. After the analysis the company should build the strength, fix their weakness as they are internal factor and they should exploit opportunities and minimize threats to be successful. As we know opportunities and strength should match, then only the company able to exploit their opportunities. We are now looking at Tescos SWOT analysis: Strengths: Diversified Business: Tesco which used to be the food super store now spreading in other product market sectors such as clothing, mobile, petrol, finance etc makes it easy to cope with any kind of risks. This is strength because the risk of one market sector fails to gain sufficient revenue is spread among other sector to cover that loss. Global market: Tesco operates in more than 12 countries apart from UK with strong performance and good reputation which means Tesco should not depend on any specific territory to success. Brand name: Tesco brand name with slogan Every little help enables to launch their own different product with best quality that is in affordable price. The brand helps Tesco to attract new customer as well as keep the existing customer. Online sales: Tesco is the supermarket which is doing very good in online sales with tesco.com which avoids the investment in physical stores and for customer it avoids to visit crowded store and the fear of unavailability of product in store. Club card: Tesco offer its customer their own club card so they hold their customer to their store and also record the customers information about their most shopping and make that product availability. Stores: Tesco which got strong market share more than 31% is opening its stores looking the need of that area. Such as in business centre it open small Tesco Express and in residential area there are Tesco Extra, Metro, Superstore etc. So the competitors are unable to beat Tesco. Corporate social Responsibility: Tesco is not only making money itself also help the community through different charity programme such as Cancer Research UKs race in 2009. It also helps to protect the environment through encouraging customer to reduce use of plastic bag and also going to be zero carbon business by 2050. WEAKNESS Too much diversification: Tesco is diversifying in different market sector which makes it difficult to focus on particular sector. So Customer may not get the quality product or service which harms their reputation and may loss their potential customer. Lack of global Business knowledge: Tesco entered to global market without proper studies over there which makes them hard to face the competition such as in first year they face in US store Fresh and Easy. OPPORTUNITY. Expand on non-food market: Tesco which used to supply only food product is now has lots of opportunity in non-food product such as clothing, electronic, finance etc. Tesco has opportunity of generating lots of revenue through good customer service, smooth supply of non-food product. Knowledge utilization: Tesco which is now one of the international giant supermarket, there are lots of opportunities of using its global business knowledge and experience in expanding its global market in more countries and place which help them to generate more revenue. Strategic alliance: Tesco which is providing lots of service in one roof has opportunity to expand through alliance. So that the specialization company helps to provide better quality service and assist in promoting sales. THREAT Weakening Economy: Economic condition play the vital role in the performance of the company. It not only hits the one sector but also damage the whole industries. In recent year due to global recession every company facing difficult to survive due to decrease in purchasing power of customer. So it is necessary for Tesco to make certain strategy to tackle that problems. Competitors: There is always the biggest threat of existing and new competitors as the market is so attractive. The existing competitor such as Sainsbury, Asda, Morrison etc increasing their market shares so Tesco should always look for new strategies to cope that threats. Global management: Tesco is operating more than 12 countries which make them harder to manage the company because of different culture and rules. There is also different economic condition so need the certain knowledge and experience to cope with that threats. (ii) Strategic Analysis Tesco is setting its strategy to motivate towards the progress of the company by focusing on its customer as well as society. Before there were only four strategies which only focus on company performance but now they add one more strategy towards the community which is also on their corporate social responsibility. So now Tescos strategies can be analyzed under five main heading: a)To be successful in international retailer: Tesco is operating more than 12 countries and the experience of more than ten years in overseas; Tesco is making some of its strategy by the knowledge gain over there such as: Be flexible Act local Maintain focus Use multi-format Develop capability and Build brand. b) To grow core at UK business: Tesco group business is significant within the UK with over 2,200 stores and more than 70% of group profit from UK business. Tesco is dominating UK market share with approximately double than its rival. Tesco has four main type of store to fulfill the need of customer such as Express, Metro, Superstore, and Extra. They also in trail of new format of
Monday, August 19, 2019
"Envy": Cynthiz Ozick Meets Melanie Klein Cynthia OzickÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"Envy; or, Yiddish in AmericaÃ¢â¬ shows the corrosive effects of envy on the life of the lonely, aging Yiddish poet Edelshtein. Edelshtein is consumed with envy of Ostrover, a famous Yiddish novelist known from English translations of his stories. He feels that Ostrover has both cuckolded him and bested him in literary success. Edelshtein believes he could become as famous as Ostover if he too had a translator into English. Without the translator, he fears his poems will die along with him and the dying Yiddish language. The story seems to illustrate the psychological insights of Melanie Klein about the unconscious mechanisms behind envy: Ã¢â¬Å"I consider that envy is an oral-sadistic and anal-sadistic expression of destructive impulses, operative from the beginning of life. . .Ã¢â¬ (Klein, ix). So long as Edelshtein operates out of envy, he will remain caught in a vicious cycle, in an infantile, self-destructive state, thwarted in his attempts to love or to be creative. He will continue to feel persecuted by Ostrover, which is really a form of internal persecution. As Klein says, Ã¢â¬Å"When this occurs, the good object is felt to be lost, and with it inner securityÃ¢â¬ ( 84). Ã¢â¬Å"Envy,Ã¢â¬ which is included in OzickÃ¢â¬â¢s 1969 collection, The Pagan Rabbi, is reminiscent of BellowÃ¢â¬â¢s Herzog (1965). Both are profound psychological anatomies, detailed dissections of a single suffering character, a victim who is nevertheless in many ways his own worst enemy. Both stories are delicately poised between the comic and the tragic. Both protagonists are intellectuals who rail against the Ã¢â¬Å"Wasteland outlookÃ¢â¬ and defend Jewish humanism. Herzog rejects Ã¢â¬Å"the commonplaces of the Wastela... ...at least two peopleÃ¢â¬ (Klein 6). Tragedy occurs in the realm of oedipal conflict, but the envious person never reaches that stage and thus never really grows up. Works Cited Bellow, Saul. Herzog. 1965; New York: Viking, 1976. Cohen, Sarah Blacher. Cynthia OzickÃ¢â¬â¢s Comic Art: From Levity to Liturgy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994. Kauvar, Elaine M. Cynthia OzickÃ¢â¬â¢s Fiction: Tradition and Invention. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993. Klein, Melanie. Envy and Gratitude: A Study of Unconscious Sources. NY: Basic Books, 1957. Lowin, Joseph. Cynthia Ozick. Boston: Twayne, 1988. Ozick, Cynthia. Ã¢â¬Å"Envy; or, Yiddish in America.Ã¢â¬ Jewish American Stories. Ed. Irving Howe. New York: New American Library, 1977: 129-77. Strandberg, Victor. Greek Mind/Jewish Soul: The Conflicted Art of Cynthia Ozick. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
If You Really Like a Guy, Hit Him I donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember wanting to punch Jeff. I remember wanting Jeff to Ã¢â¬Å"ask me out.Ã¢â¬ How I got into the position of hitting him is somewhat of a mystery to me. Jeff Stanford was the cutest guy in our third grade class. He had blonde hair, blue eyes-the whole shabang! He even wore tapered, stone washed jeans (it was the eighties, this was cool). He was my friend. I was, of all things, a tomboy. I ran faster then the boys. I could beat them all at tether ball. My hair was shorter then any of the boys, and I had the biggest crush on Jeff. Along with being head over heels in love with Jeff, I was a die hard Madonna fan. I had her tapes and even a sweatshirt with her picture on it. Jeff was not a Madonna fan. I thought this was something we could work out. Although we could not spend endless hours reciting lines from Ã¢â¬Å"Like a VirginÃ¢â¬ together, we could always play tetherball. Tethe ball, at least at Pearson Elementary, was the game of champions. I loved to play, but at early recess the balls werenÃ¢â¬â¢t always up yet and Jeff, Kelly and myself sometimes had to make do with a rousing game of tag. This was definitely a Ã¢â¬Å"tag day.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"RUUUUUUUN Kelly, he is right behind you!!!!!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Huh?Ã¢â¬ questioned Kelly. Ã¢â¬Å"Tagged you, tagged you!Ã¢â¬ taunted Jeff. Ã¢â¬Å"Ouch,Ã¢â¬ I screamed. Ã¢â¬Å"I have something in my eye.Ã¢â¬ I was completely serious. Ã¢â¬Å"There is something in my eye and it hurts!Ã¢â¬ I kept trying to get, whatever it was, out of my eye using the sleeve of my Madonna sweatshirt. Jeff was trying to help, in some way, but doing a piss-poor job of it. Ã¢â¬Å" What happened?Ã¢â¬ he asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Did Madonna stick her arm out and poke you in the eye?!!! Hahahahaaaahaaaha!Ã¢â¬ Boys are so dumb. Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ It was all I could say, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any witty come backs, but come on, he could have left me alone! Ã¢â¬Å"Why are you picking on me?Ã¢â¬ I asked. I wished he would just leave, but no, he kept taunting me. Ã¢â¬Å"You are so mean! LEAVE!Ã¢â¬ I shouted. For some unknown reason he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get it! My eye still hurt, recess was almost over, and I decided I hated Jeff... WHAAAAP!!!!!!! I socked him. A right fisted jab, straight up the gut, full third grade force, and Jeff Stanford, my crush, went down.
What would be your reaction if you had a teenager come home pregnant? Many teenagers fear their parents if they have to bring home a bad report card. Others may have a fear if they get into trouble at school. Although these fears are substantial, young women experience a fear that young men do not. Becoming pregnant is a serious fear for young women that engage in sexual intercourse. Often times a teen motherÃ¢â¬â¢s answer to this situation is abortion or an illegal abortion. Teen abortion can be somewhat difficult to get in many states without having parental consent or notification. These laws make it unsafe for the teen mother and unborn child. Teen abortion should be allowed without having to have parental consent. The mortality rate of teen mothers and babies would decrease significantly if this were the case. Sadly, each year in the United States the age of young girls who are sexually active decreases. At this rate there are many unwanted and unplanned pregnancies. Ã¢â ¬Å"One in three abortions in the U.S. are performed on teensÃ¢â¬ (Torr 91). That is a very high statistic that young women have created due to their adult decisions.Ã¢â¬ Teens are sometimes reluctant to practice birth control because it is not romanticÃ¢â¬ (Emmens 13). Teens tend to believe that they should not use birth control, because they do not think that they will get pregnant. The lack of birth control may result in pregnancy. Once a teenager gets pregnant she may not know what to do next. Teenagers usually become nervous and unsure of whether to tell someone or just keep the pregnancy a secret. When they keep the pregnancy a secret it puts them in danger as well as the unborn child. Planned Parenthood Federation of America is the nation's leading sexual and reproductive health care advocate and provider. Ã¢â¬Å"We believe that everyone has the right to choose when or whether to have a child, and that every child should be wanted and lovedÃ¢â¬ (Suarez 2). Planned Parenthood allows a teenager to make safe decisions without including the teenÃ¢â¬â¢s parents. In many states where they have Planned Parenthood facilities the teenagers have more options. Teenagers that want birth control and/or an abortion can receive services, as well as information from a doctor. The doctors at this clinic encourage young women to tell their parents of their choice of abortion.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Decendents of the Caribbean Diaspora are located in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and countries that were previously colonial empires. The inhabited islands that are in the Caribbean are not only geographical regions, but also regions of the imagination, lived cultural experiences and are an interesting study in religious identity as well (Harry:2). Ã¢â¬ Colonized by European powers from the sixteenth century, the Caribbean islands have become a mixture of cultures from Europe, Africa, and India, as well as from the original inhabitants of the islands. Harry Goulbourne and John Solomos in there article Ã¢â¬Å"Ethnic and Racial StudiesÃ¢â¬ says that the Ã¢â¬Å"History of the Caribbean has been shaped for a number of centuries now by the economic, social and cultural impact of movement of people across the Atlantic. Ã¢â¬ Without the migration of individuals to the Caribbean, due to slavery, the making of the Caribbean world would be nonexistent (Harry:2). Emancipation is defined as the various efforts to obtain political rights or equality, often for specifically disfranchised groups. Numerous countries and states have gone through this process during one period of time in their historic accounts. For the Caribbean Diaspora, this period was also a mark of re-development and re-establishment of economies and societies. Emancipation in the Caribbean was the catalyst for many positive steps in the future but also a setback in humanity with respect to human rights. In this paper one will examine the culture and religion of individuals in the Caribbean such as the Yoruba People and also will gain knowledge from personal family history in the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Throughout history, the system of slavery is primarily an institution based upon the labor of poor individuals who are forced into harsh working conditions while an elite few reap the benefits of the work of the larger masses. Ã¢â¬Å"African slavery in the Caribbean is a late development in the evolution of slavery in human society. Ã¢â¬ However, for the Caribbean diaspora this all began in the seventeenth century when the European colonization of the Caribbean began to change drastically as exploration gave way to exploitation. With European colonizers looking for ways to fill their pockets, the Caribbean was stormed and eventually flooded with lavery. With the introduction of this new oppression to the world, a major form of organized labor was created which changed the social organization radically in the Caribbean Diaspora (Klein:1). As the plantation system began to thrive and expand through the following centuries, the Caribbean became the focus of American slave centers. For instance, Thornton writes in his novel Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800, that Ã¢â¬Å"More than half of all the Africans who were transported to the Americas in the eighteenth century went to the island colonies of the Caribbean (Thornton:317)Ã¢â¬ . With this abundance of slaves arriving in the Caribbean, plantations developed laws to regulate the plantation system and the many slaves imported to work on the plantations. This legal control was the most oppressive for slaves inhabiting colonies where they outnumbered their European masters and where rebellion was persistent. During the early colonial period, rebellious slaves were harshly punished, with sentences including death by torture and less serious crimes such as assault, theft or persistent escape attempts were commonly punished with mutilations, such as the cutting off of a hand or a foot (Thornton:276). Sadly, nothing could help these individuals during this time period because their voice of opinion was robbed from them once they were captured and forced into slavery. With high mortality rates, controlled lives, hard labor and poor nutrition in the Caribbean Diaspora, the African population slowly started to decrease and the rates of importation gradually started to increased. This paved a way towards the creation of new land and enterprises which in return increased the production of materials such as sugar and coffee beans. Although, slaves were forced into a controlled environment and labor, their native language and culture was still close to their hearts. As Thornton writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever the brutalities of the Middle passage or slave life, it was not going to cause the African-born to forget their mother language or change their ideas about beauty in design or music: nor would it cause them to abandon the ideological underpinnings of religion or ethics Ã¢â¬â not on arrival in America, not ever in their lives. Ã¢â¬ With this mother language, culture and religion not forgotten, slaves developed a way of communicating mongst each other and also grasped the Ã¢â¬Å"American wayÃ¢â¬ when speaking to their masters (Thornton:317-320). Also, by keeping the memories and traditional ways of their people, Africans were able to pass their knowledge and history of their people down to the next generation which would eventually bring to life the monstrosities that really occurred during this time period. While some may deny it, slavery and the impact it had on the world is still with us today in movies, books, poetry, songs, articles, and even in the minds of the people that had experienced it firsthand. However, although countless individuals came to America as slaves, there are also those who entered this soil via immigration. During the late eighteenth century and early to mid-nineteenth century, a mass exodus of people coming from Europe, China, Japan, Canada and the West Indies moved into the United States (Harney). This was a time for growth in the United States, often referred to as the Industrial Age. This time period was an exciting period because of the fact that there is another revolution going on in the workplace. As technology started to change and bloom, everything around it started to transform and more jobs were created. As a result, the Industrial Revolution affected the whole stability of a nation, not only the economy. It affected the relationships between classes, and also the relationships between countries and gave those individuals who migrated over to the United States a chance at a prosperous life without slavery. With many Africans migrating to the United States there were those who decided to go back to the Caribbean and continue their traditional cultural ways. In the late eighteenth century, written reports discovered a cultural tradition of masking by Africans in various parts of the Caribbean: Belize, Bermuda, Haiti, Jamaica, the Bahamas, St.Ã Kitts, Nevis, Guyana, Grenada, and Trinidad. These masking activities were called by several names like gumbe, jonkonu, or kambula, however today it is referred to as Carnival. Carnival is an annual celebration of life found in many countries of the world and is an integral part of West African religious culture, intimately connected with secret societies that were gender specific (Lewis:180). Growing up in a family that celebrates this specific tradition, the history of how it began is very familiar to me from family stories and also by traveled experiences. This tradition Ã¢â¬Å"CarnivalÃ¢â¬ came from hundreds of years ago when the followers of the Catholic religion in Italy began holding a wild costume festival right before the first day of Lent. Because Catholics are not supposed to eat meat during Lent, they called their festival, carnevale which means Ã¢â¬Å"to put away the meat. Ã¢â¬ As time passed, Carnivals in Italy became quite famous and in fact the practice spread to France, Spain, and all the Catholic countries in Europe. Then as the French, Spanish, and Portuguese began to take control of the Americas and other parts of the world, they brought with them their tradition of celebrating Carnival. The dynamic economic and political histories of the Caribbean are indeed the ingredients of festival arts as we find them today throughout the African and Caribbean Diaspora (Liverpool). Trinidad and Tobago is a beautiful example of how the tradition of Carnival can unite the world. For in this small nation, the beliefs and customs of many cultures come together and for a brief five days the whole country forgets their differences to celebrate life! For African people, Carnival became a way to express their power as individuals, as well as their rich cultural traditions. Today, Carnival in Trinidad intertwines the many immigrants who have come from different parts of the Caribbean, Europe, Africa, India, and China. For my family in particular, Carnival is not just an event that happens every year; it is actually a business that has been in my family for decades. Carnival was introduced to Trinidad around 1785, as the French settlers began to arrive. The tradition caught on quickly, and fancy balls were held where the wealthy planters put on masks, wigs, and beautiful dresses and danced long into the night (Liverpool:127). The use of masks had a special meaning for the slaves in there West African culture, because for many African peoples, masking is widely used in their rituals for the dead and also connected them with secret gender-specific societies (Lewis:180). Obviously banned from the masked balls of the French, the slaves would hold their own little Carnival in their backyards using their own rituals and folklore, but also imitating their mastersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior at the masked balls (Regis:231). For African people, Carnival became a way to express their power as individuals, as well as heir rich cultural traditions. After 1838 when slavery was abolished, the freed Africans began to host their own Carnival celebrations in the streets that grew more and more elaborate, and soon became more popular than the balls (Liverpool). Today, traditional Trinidad Carnival has been a product of both African and European masking legacies. For me personally, Carnival in Trinidad is like a mirror that reflects the faces the many immigrants who have come to this island nation and is the uniqueness of their cultural re/creations all over the Caribbean Diaspora (Lewis:184). Ever since I was a young girl my Grandfather would tell me of stories on how he would make costumes for Carnival and how he was very popular in Trinidad. In order to put a carnival band together, it takes many weeks of welding, sewing, gluing, applying feathers, sequins, foil papers, glitter and lots of creativity, energy, and patience. With individual experience, it takes a lot of time and effort in order to make what you envisioned comes to life. Costumes are sewn, decorated, and fitted to each individual dancer. All this creative activity takes place in what are referred to in the Caribbean as Ã¢â¬Å"mas camps,Ã¢â¬ where teamwork and organization are crucial to creating an award-winning production. For my Grandfather being a Ã¢â¬Å"Band LeaderÃ¢â¬ , costume designer and leader of the people that wear his costumes, means the world to him. It was and still is a form of expressing his cultural tradition in ways that you can only see in his drawings. My Grandfather is a homegrown Trinidadian masÃ¢â¬â¢ man from Woodbrook, Port-Of- Spain in Trinidad and Tobago. His love for the artistry involved in making costumes derives itself from his days as a young child coming home from school and stopping in the Silver Stars masÃ¢â¬â¢ camp. While all his friends listened to pan, he would watch his cousin create and construct costumes. As he began to get older, he began to draw and create costumes of his own. When asking him about his younger days he said, Ã¢â¬Å"I just couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help myselfÃ¢â¬ ¦ growing up in a third world country forces you to do whatever you had to do in order to make money and put food on the table. Even though, I had many jobs at the young age of eleven, I made my first costume and was given permission to play with Silver Stars. From that day forward, I began to teach myself the history and craftsmanship of Carnival and decided to give it a try! Ã¢â¬ Listening to this story not only inspired me but also taught me a valuable lesson in cherishing what I have in life because there are those out there that have much less. In addition, I also learned that not only did my Grandfather make his first costume at the age of eleven; through hard work and dedication he then brought his first band in 1978 called Ã¢â¬Å"Planet of the ApesÃ¢â¬ . This band shocked spectators, masqueraders, and judges. I asked him what inspired him to create such a thing and he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Franklin J. SchaffnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Science fiction film based on the novel La planete des singesÃ¢â¬ ¦. it is like the recent movie Planet of the Apes, however instead of taking over the world, the masqueraders assumed the dominant role and flooded the streets of Trinidad. Ã¢â¬ I laughed at this creation because I found it to be so Ã¢â¬Å"Halloween likeÃ¢â¬ . However, when thinking about it, to individuals back then this was a spectacular sight, a fantastic portrayal of this fiction film and a great first impression in the world of masÃ¢â¬â¢ creativity during that Carnival season. Although my Grandfather enjoyed seeing his first creation come to life this was just the beginning in his success. Some of his other presentations include; Ã¢â¬Å"This Land is OursÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Travels of Marco PoloÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Bush MedicineÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Touch of ClassÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Somewhere Over the RainbowÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"HarimÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Island FunÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"War CryÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Paint BoxÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Tie a Yellow RibbonÃ¢â¬ to name a few. With his name increasing in fame throughout the years, he also met some lifelong friends and teachers, one being Peter Minshall. Peter Minshall is one of the most incredible artists working today in Trinidad. He is acclaimed internationally as the foremost artist working in the field of Ã¢â¬Å"dancing mobiles,Ã¢â¬ a form of performance art that combines the three-dimensional quality of large-scale sculpture with the dramatic and choreographic expressiveness of a live human performer. My Grandfather told me that the reason that Minshall started to work in that field was because, Ã¢â¬Å"The dancing mobile was one of many forms to grow out of the masquerade tradition of Trinidad Carnival and if he is the only one taking it on then there is no competition and with no competition means more awards. Ã¢â¬ However, even when my Grandfather did not receive awards for his masterpieces, they are still remembered today as the pieces of art that influenced Carnival today. After listening to him recall past memories of his glory days I asked him why he retired in 1991. He then replied, Ã¢â¬Å"I had a family and wanted them to have a better life than living here in Trinidad. So I decided to move to the United States and started to create a life here, where I still live today. Ã¢â¬ Hearing that reply almost brought me to tears, with the love of his family and the determination to provide a better life for them he made the biggest jump of his life. He first moved to New York where he had three jobs which were a taxi driver, a police man and a photographer. It was a difficult task having all of these jobs and taking care of your family however as he would say it, Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing is too much, you just have organize your time. Being an immigrant in the United States was a tough challenge for him however, with the experience of the Carnival business on his shoulders he was ready to accomplish anything. Not only did he buy a house, he sent all five of his daughters to a private catholic school where they received the best education that his money could buy. Now, forty six years later my family still owns the house that he bought when he first moved to the United States and he just came out of retirement in the Carnival business. I remember entering his room and wondering why his old Carnival drawings were are all over the bed. In confusion I asked him what he was doing and he replied, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m coming out of retirement, I am on a crusade to bring back the traditional culture of masÃ¢â¬â¢ making techniques in Trinidad Carnival with a modern touch. With a little hard work I believe that I can reclaim my position and also win the people of Trinidad with my new costume designs. Ã¢â¬ This taught me that even though you might give up your passion, you can always pick it up and start it again. As of today, my Grandfather has created three bands called Ã¢â¬Å"AlohaÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Valleys of the NileÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"DÃ¢â¬â¢ Mayan empireÃ¢â¬ which will be reveled in Carnival 2013. Each year as I travel to Trinidad to experience this cultural festival I am always reminded by the history in which it originated from and the many that did not see the light of freedom. To visitors it seems to be five days of partying however, to my family it is a time to appreciate our Catholic faith and also a time to celebrate our cultural independence with the other decedents of different African heritages.