Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 3

Economics - Essay ExampleSome of the other factors as determinants of choose have been introduced in the theory of demand recently. The traditional theory of demand starts with the examination of the deportment of the consumer since the market demand is assumed to be the summation of the demands of the individual consumers. Thus, the demand for a given goodness is the horizontal summation of the demands of the individual consumers. In other words the quantity demanded in the market at each price is the sum of the individual demands of all consumers at that price. The responsiveness of the demand in tattle to the price or income of the consumer is referred as the elasticity of demand. There are as many elasticities of demand as its determinants. The most important of these elasticities are (a) the price Elasticity, (b) the income elasticity, and (c) the cross elasticity. The concept of elasticity of demand is important in that it s being used by the economists to explain the consu mer behaviour in different market conditions. With this mount this paper illustrates the importance of different kinds of elasticities of demand and the ways in which they are helpful to the economists to report on the consumer behaivour...The laws of demand and supply are an important part of in the study of economics. They help the economists to stair the proportional changes in the demand due to changes in prices with the concept of elasticity of demand. (Pink Monkey) The price elasticity is a measure out of the responsiveness of demand to changes in the commoditys own price. Depending on the magnitude of the changes in demand it can be termed as either point elasticity or arc elasticity of demand. If the changes in the prices are very small, the point elasticity of demand is used as the measure of responsiveness of demand. If the changes in the prices are large then arc elasticity of demand is used as the relevant measure of responsiveness.The laws of demand and supply form the basic

Monday, April 29, 2019

Community Collaborator Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Community Collaborator - Essay ExampleSecond, government officials, through their programs and reform initiatives affect student productivity, attendance, and the rate of students promoted to subsequent grades, while at the same time suffice as role models for future students. Third, topical anesthetic groups like Elks, by providing financial and other forms of support, provide noteworthy assistance to teachers in taking effective leadership positions among their students. Fourth, veterans, with their knowledge and the respect they earned in the community, serves as a source of wisdom in imparting to younger generations priceless life experiences to guide their futures. And last, local newspapers and district public relations offices help boost student esteem and morale by circumstances as an outlet for student works and publishing morale boosting articles about students and their trains.Each group successfully improves student learning through programs and strategies unique wi thin the segment they represent. 4-H, for example, improves student behavior and encourages healthy phylogeny by involving all members of the community to work together to support learning both in school and beyond the classroom.

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Business law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 7

Business law - Essay ExampleThe CEO is also apt(predicate) to pay damages to Ronnie for committing fraud and acting in bad faith when he offered to sell his shack in order to trick him and play a practical joke on the buyer, by fling the house for sale for a low price of $50,000, when in truth and in fact, the property was non-existent because it was belatedly destroyed by a hurricane.B. Snookie Plumbing cannot revoke its offer. In the case of Campbell Co. General Contractors, Inc. V. Virginia Metal Industries, Inc. 708. F.2d 930 (1983), the authoritative Court laid down the principle of promissory estoppel of the sub resolutionors liability in construction bidding cases by stating thatWe are not the first court to encounter the situation where there has been a promise baseless by consideration which has occasioned assurance and change of position so that the promisor who backs away from his undertaking visits a real hardship on the promisee. An absence of consideration in such cases should not permit an unjust result. Rather, the law has developed the concept of promissory estoppel which allows recovery even in the absence of consideration where reliance and change of position to the detriment of the promisee make it unconscionable not to enforce the promise or to allot damages for its breach. Therefore, Snookie cannot revoke its offer, otherwise, it shall be liable to pay damages to Contractor for breach of contract.C. The contract is enforceable because there was a contract signed by the CEO and Situation Construction. All element of a valid contract are present. The CEO agreeed to amend the contract when he signed the agreement which demanded affix in payment. The consideration is $2 Million, to which the CEO agreed. Under the law, the contract can be amended provided that consent was freely given by both parties. Here, the CEO was not forced to sign to new contract reflecting the increase in the cost of construction. Therefore,

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work Article by Kohn Alfie

wherefore Incentive Plans Cannot Work by Kohn Alfie - Article ExampleMost of organizations in the United States have enforced programs with the aim of motivating employees through compensation. The belief that individuals will perform better in the work if they ar settle withed has not been thoroughly examined. However, there are findings that indicate the failure of these incentive programs due to various reasons (Kohn 2). research indicates that rewards are effective in securing temporary compliance. Just like punishment, rewards do not effectively flummox lasting diverge in behavior and attitudes. Individuals go back to their old behaviors when the rewards run out. Psychologists regard incentives as extrinsic motivators and they state that they do not change the attitudes that accompany peoples behaviors. Incentives do not develop a lasting commitment to any action or value. Rather, they simply and temporarily change what individual do. In regard to productivity, research shows that rewards do not produce better work. Thus, there is no correlation between performance and pay (Kohn 3). The main reason why most executives continue relying on the incentive programs is that few individuals have taken the step to assess the link between incentive programs and problems associated with workplace morale and productivity. The author asserts that rewards only buy temporary compliance (Kohn 4). Kohn gives six frameworks that give the exact salute of the incentive programs. Firstly, pay is not a motivator. Though individuals are very concerned with what they get as salaries, this is not an indication that money is the motivator. There is no solid basis that when people are give more, it will motivate them to perform better at work. Secondly, rewards punish. Just like punishment, rewards are manipulative. In two situations, individuals are being caught (that is, if one is found doing the right thing he will be rewarded, if he is caught doing the wrong thing he will be punished). The managers are making the people whole tone controlled in the workplace instead of making the environment suitable for progress, learning, and exploration. Thirdly, rewards destroy relationships. Employee relationships are destroyed when they scramble for rewards. Cooperation and organizational excellence is destroyed when individuals are forced to compete for recognition or rewards. Individual who crappernot win feel worthless and the more these awards are exposed, the more destructive their effect can be. Additionally, competition for limited incentives among the employees can make them view each other as hindrance to their success. Fourthly, reasons are ignored by rewards. For the managers to influence workplace problems, they must know what caused them. Each problem in the organization requires a different response. combine on incentives to improve productivity does not address the problems and cannot bring close significant change. At times, managers commonly use incentive systems as an alternative for providing workers with what they require in order to do a unafraid job. Research shows that paying for performance hinders the capability of the managers to manage. Fifthly, risk-taking is discouraged by rewards. When individuals are motivated to think about what they will receive for getting involved in a task, they will less likely explore possibilities or take risks. Some of the individuals will participate in illegal and unethical behavior because they fate to benefit from the incentive program. Studies show that people will tend to minimize challenges when working for a reward (Kohn 6). Lastly, interest is undermined by reward. Like punishment, rewards undermine the intrinsic stimulus that leads to optimal performance. The employee becomes less interested in the work when the manager keeps on emphasizing on what the employee can


HOWARD GOODALL&aposS 20TH CENTURY GREATS - THE BEATLES - Coursework ExampleThe mainstreaming technology is a significant lineament in the moving picture.From the 1996 popular music presentation, the Beatles shows a well-organized and choreographic presentation. The unique features are justified through the variant dance shows in the ikon. The video also presents a rich source of a revolutionized regime in the popular music industry. The justification of the ideology is evident in the discussion presented in the video via opposite scenes. The video also portrays interesting elements aimed at depicting the nature of the melodious world to a jumbo extent. I find the video to have significant features of the musical history. The explanation on musical notes and keys adds logic to the musical world. The background song in the video explains a set of musical instruments harmonized to progress to a lasting effect. The song in the video is a great piece of the late nineteenth centur y. The use of the song in the video enlightens a given audience on musical history.The videos music explains the extent to which musical history changes given the various pieces and artists. I find the elaborations in the video to gravitate a connection between cultures and generations. Additionally, the presentation of musical pieces through varying musical stack is of essence in the musical history. The video extract explains a link between cords of the 19th century. As such, a given audience easily associates the changing artists tradition to the varying generations. The video is a sample that captures a listeners attention imputable to the varying harmonization in the musical pieces. I find the song I am here old fashioned due to the missing pieces of cord harmonization. As such, a given audience would note the difference easily. Other pieces presented in the song extend beyond the rhythm in the

Friday, April 26, 2019

Demand and supply for DUREX in Austria Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Demand and supply for DUREX in Austria - seek ExampleCondoms play a very important role in preventing Human Immune virus (HIV) transmission. According to the United States Agency for international development, current world supply and learn of preventives is too down in the mouth to significantly impact on the pandemic. Many health practitioners and academics have argued that, condoms are the world most smart technology to prevent the transmission of HIV. This paper examines the contain and supply of condoms in Austria. In this paper, emphasis is set on those factors affecting the supply and demand of condoms in Austria.Supply and demand of condoms in Austria can examine using the basic supply and demand diagram. This model is an economic model based on damage and quantity in a market (Humphrey 1992). In this mode, Economists believe that in a competitive market, charge pull up stakes function to equalize the quantity demanded by consumers, and the quantity supplied by pr oducers, resulting in an economic counterweight of price and quantity (tutor2u 2008).The role of social marketers in the demand and supply of condoms in this area should non be neglected. ... Social marketers here refer to charitable organization, social groups all preaching and cautioning the population of the take in to be more health conscious. Their role can affect the demand and supply of condoms in Austria well-nigh(prenominal) negatively and positively. For example, where they emphasize zero sex before marriage, abstinence, one man one partner, the demand of condom will be affected negatively. But where their message is instead directed at the use of risk-free sex, the demand of condom in Austria will add as shown in figure one above. That is demand will increase from DD to DD1 while supply remains constant as SS. Here, prices will increase in the short run should supply remain constant.1.1.2Private Sector DistributorsIn Austria like in many otherwise European countri es, the private sector is very active in the distribution of condoms especially within some educational and social institutions where the Durex condoms are distributed for free. In this regard the health sentiency aim of HIV will increase and the population will be more willing to use condoms but however in the absence of these the demand of condoms within Austria will fall due to the low health awareness level with respect to HIV prevention.1.1.3 Other Donor ResourcesAt the international arena, the role of the donors in the health awareness stir up for HIV prevention should not be neglected. All things being equal, an increase in donors resources for the campaign against HIV will increase the supply of condoms and consequently reduce the price for condoms in most countries including Austrria. An increase in the production of donors sponsored Durex condom production will consequently reduce the price and increase the demand of Durex condoms in the

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Which Research Design I Can Use in My Profession Paper

Which Design I Can Use in My Profession - look for Paper ExampleCurrently, scholars are utilize the design to measure student s performance ground on other learning disabilities and language level of understanding (Hattie, 2012). This design is mainly used by educationists in matters of education disparities among people within a given community. One signifi good dealt factor to compose into consideration when describing gaps in education is the level education benchmarks.As stated in the Education Week, some(prenominal) communities have not been able to solve these gaps in education brought because of race of economic status, racial discrimination, teachers professional competence, and learners intellectual backgrounds (Hattie, 2012). This disparity has been found to exist between children in early puerility schools, secondary schools, and even in the eighth grade in middle schools (Clotfelter, Helen and Jacob, 2009).Some of the recommendations made to flash back the achieveme nt gap between students include reduced class sizes, developing small learning environments that teachers can easily handle, developing comprehensive early childhood programs, taking teachers for in service training and elevation academic standards for all students (Johnson, 2002). All these recommendations can only be achieved through use of data obtained using the achievement gap design. It is important to look at information obtained in terms of evaluating studies from the academic books that can be used to bridge the gap (Hattie, 2012). This is important because it produces information obtained from comprehensive research conducted by education experts. Schools can also use the information obtained to solve problems that generate the achievement gaps within the schools. Finally, the information obtained can be used to evaluate students performance. It is through the information that teachers can know how to handle students in the classroom (Hattie, 2012).This

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Falls Prevention in Australia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Falls Prevention in Australia - Essay ExampleUnintentional falls are greenness encounters in the main among elderly individuals who may experience non-fatal injuries from these falls. Fall- tie in injuries are common among these of age(p) adults, hip fractures being whiz of them. Mortality rates in relation to falls are in like manner high in this eld grouping, and death is even a major possibility among those 85 years and above (Currie, 2007). This is also the human face in Australia where the common sufferers of falls belong to the above 65 age group (Department of Health and Ageing, 2012). Fall-related injuries mostly include hip fractures and wrist fractures. Some patients have also been known to suffer head injuries from their falls. The older the patient, the risk of death is also higher, especially among the above 85 years old age group (Department of Health and Ageing, 2012). The constitute and health impact of these falls are also significant, sometimes leading to other health problems and issues (Currie, 2007). For the elderly individuals, the recovery period from their falls is usually longer. Due to prolonged healing, they may also develop pressure ulcers which can further delay the healing process (Currie, 2007). Falls management cost the government millions of dollars, with costs amounting to 170 million dollars for fall-related injuries. Moreover, the risk of re-injury or future falls is also an ever-persistent risk for patients (Currie, 2007). In effect, falls are a significant public health issue which needs to be addressed by health authorities. Throughout the years, various studies have been undertaken on the problem of falls and related injuries, including interventions to prevent and manage their occurrence. This study seeks to evaluate the clinical question How significant is lighting in the streak of falls among the elderly? This study shall first evaluate the literature on falls prevention, critically evaluating much(prenomi nal) literature and assessing their formal and structural validity and reliability. This review shall also discuss the search strategy utilize in order to establish studies to be reviewed. Then, it will identify the critical assessment tool to be used to evaluate the data. A critical review of the validity of the study findings will also be discussed. Potential barriers and facilitators to the implementation and/or maintenance of the strategy shall then follow. This paper shall end with a completion which is based on the quality of the studies and relevance of the findings. Body There were six studies retrieved for this study, and most of them were quantitative studies. five-spot of the studies had a likely experimental design. One study had a correlational design. All of the studies were quantitative studies, in other words, they are an empirical assessment of phenomena using numerical and statistical analysis and frameworks (Bruce, Pope, and Sanistreet, 2008). Five of the stud ies were prospective studies as they were carried out on respondents who would be recruited and who were to be subjected to various procedures and processes. Experimental studies are those which evaluate courtship and effect relations among respondents which are studied under controlled settings (Bruce, et.al., 2008).

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Individual organizational analysis with State Farm Essay

Individual organizational analysis with State Farm - Essay ExampleThis antecedent was set after the Paul v. Virginia case in which the power of the state to regulate state found indemnity and common companies was challenged (Grace & Klein, 2009). Major industry players characterizing the shared and insurance sector in United States everyplacehear massive global influence and market dominance. This results into increased competition between well-established insurance and mutual companies standardized State Farm and other small scale and state based industry players. As a mutual industry player, State Farm provides impetus for economic growth by holding go for and providing funds for economic growth and development. The development of life insurance and other human based mutual services have changed the societal view of the industry as a whole. From an industry that was once viewed with skepticism, the insurance industry has attracted fundamental societal support due to the v alues it adds to insured individuals (Turner, 2005). Technological craze has created significant impacts in major industries in the United States economy including the insurance and mutual industries. Competition is currently be by the ability of an organization to integrate proper information technology systems into its trading operations as a way of increasing efficiency and accuracy. Insurance companies are currency deploying significant technological tools in the operations such as the use of mobile technology, cloud computing and interactive web 2.0 to integrate its client service and ensure proper service delivery. It is estimated that the insurance industry in the United States spent over $40.6 billion in 2012 in information technology services and products with an aim of... With the current competitions in the market, the sufferance of sound strategies defines the success of a play along especially in the insurance industry. State Farm has achieved gigantic success this far as a result of its approaches and strategies that seeks to blend with the events within the market. However, to remain relevant in the face of the current competition, State Farm should adopt a customer-centered strategy that seeks to increase customer satisfaction. To learn the different concerns of the customers, the go with should organize regular open days for interaction with the current and prospective customers. From this, the company can be able to gauge the overall view of the customers and act on their different concerns. The company has developed into one major insurance and mutual company in the United States with a abundant pool of loyal customers thus giving it a strong market backing. However, the participation in mutual business restricts its investment opportunities and restrains its financial source to stock and the sale of shares. The company should improve its financial and quote services especially targeting its traditional customers as this will broade n its source of revenue and cushion it from discharge during economic meltdowns.

Monday, April 22, 2019

Project Promotional Campaign Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Project promotional Campaign - Essay Example ca-ca a point that they are the largest hotel trademark in the expediency industry they offer clients a money back guarantee that is termed as well Night Guarantee, which covers for the rooms, hospitality, service and the overall experience at the hotel (Premier Inn, 2009).The hotel offers a lot of packages to its clients. The most evident ones are the 2 for 1 package where a customer pays for the rent for one individual barely can accommodate two, additionally the kids are free. Then there is the park and fly package, which includes a nights check mark, automobile parking facilities and Grab & Go Breakfasts. some other important offering to the clients is the premier offer that allows people to baulk at the hotel for as low as 29. This cheap accommodation is only provided to customers if they plan and book their stay online at least 21 days prior to their arrival.The objectives of the promotional campaign are focused or so the increasing the brand value. There are several factors which can be used to increase the brand value. The first one is building awareness of the offer in the mind of the target market. In found to sell a service it is of utmost importance to reach out to the customers effectively and portray to them just now what is on offer. Then, the company should focus on creating consumer interest and providing information through easy and well communicated channels. Another important objective of the campaign is to stimulate the demand the right promotion can drive customers to make a purchase. Finally, the most important objective of the promotional effort is to reinforce the brand name (Know This, 2009). progress should not be viewed as an effort to incur a onetime sales but it should be an effort that promotes the brand. The brand value and brand loyalty will reap long term benefits and therefrom the effort and the cost associated with the promotional campaign should aim to increase the brand value and loyalty.The target sense of hearing for this offer is

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Math Early Childhood Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Math Early Childhood - Assignment ExampleGroups stimulate group think especially when formed by students sharing the same interests. Groups substance abused different materials to realize variety of ideas since students have cognisance of different objects. 3. He uses variety of graphical representation techniques for instance maps, look line and scales. This enhances flexibility in learning since the student gets different ideas resulting in a general understanding. He set the students free to move around and be comfortable when working on the estimates. 4. By the use of number line to allocate the point at which the animal counts they have estimated rests. They used rulers and maps to estimate the coat of geographical regions under survey. Measurement at the number could have been enhanced by drawing a straight line then marking different points of equidistant from one another. 5. As seen in the results, on that point are two results which have close estimates. According to t he rule of probability, the two close ones are finisher to the real value. I would then take an average of the two as the final estimate. 1. Advantage the excogitation of time as a measure of duration enables the students get a background information of how the inventors came up with this gadget. This enhances their creativity as seen in the way they enjoy the exercises. Disadvantage introducing the concept of time goes into intricate enlarge which might be too difficult for young students to understand. Their mind is also diverted from the overall endeavor which is time reading. Going straight to reading time creates an ease of comprehension. 2. They counted the second hand after both five seconds to note how many of them are there in a minute. This was done under the teachers guidance and they shouted along. This counted till they reached 60 thereby knowing how many seconds are there in a minute.

Chapter Six Reading Response Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Chapter Six Reading Response - Assignment ExampleFor instance, the bronze figure of shivah figure represented the Hindu god in a dance pose as a symbol of ritualistic devotion of the Hindu. It is quite fascinating to learn how people had diverse ways of spectral devotion. Secondly, the Amber Necklaces of Eastern Asia were a symbol of true(p) luck, happiness and as a charm against evil. The good associated with it is quite fascinating.The two works of art that I responded to most negatively were The Bayeux Tapestry and the Stc-Foy Reliquary. Though they argon useful representations of the religious transformation and influence of the 10th century in Europe, they period was marked by several Christian-Muslim wars.The one monument I would want to know more about is the statues of Moai Ancestors figures found in Polynesia Island. I equate their significance to the pyramids of Egypt which has images of their early rulers. I would imagine how the rulers must have looked like. The monumen tality of the statues exhibits some view and

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Forensically investigating a security breach while balancing the need Research Paper - 1

Forensically investigating a security breach while equilibrise the need for business continuity and rapid return to normalcy within the organization - Research physical composition ExampleStuxnet attack exposes non-availability of mechanisms and procedures for evaluating security incidents in industrial settings (Dacer, Kargl, Knig & Valdes, 2014, p.62).Computer technologists are now steering on structuring security mechanisms that assist to investigate hackers profiles while they are in headway, and forensic tools that assist to survey computer intrusion after they take on transpired. By employing botnet detection tool, one burn down know nearly the information about the hacker. For instance, botsniffer and BotMiner tools are utilized to know about intrusion when they are in alert stage (Filippoupolitis, Loukas & Kapetanakis 2014).The science which is used to recognise, evaluate, uphold, document and elucidating information and evidence from electronic and digital tools and it is intended to sentry duty the privacy of the computer users from being attacked or exploited is known as computer forensics. Forensic experts have an onus to their client to show attention about the information and data to be identified that can become probable corroboration , particularly , it can acts as digital proof in probe and can help to initiate legal action against assailants.Speed of the attack is directly associated with high aim IT skill of the attacker. Further, a highly skilled attacker may leave no tracks or open misstates as contrasted to not experienced attacker. Further, the tracks or traces left by the attacker will offer cue stick about the attacker. A well-experienced attacker will remove log files whereas a less experienced attacker may not delete log files (Filippoupolitis, Loukas & Kapetanakis 2014).By engaging a well-experienced external forensic investigator, a company can know the nature of the data exposure. External consultants like Ernst & Yo ung (E&Y) can use their expertise to recover the deleted logs and files, is well-versed in the novel procedures employed by hackers, and is well-experienced in

Friday, April 19, 2019

Applying a Lence of The Wire, Season 4 Research Paper

Applying a Lence of The Wire, Season 4 - Research Paper ExampleThey carry the burdens of problems supposedly set almost by their parents but because a father is in jail or a aim has goose egg to do but get into her addictions, the children who are supposed to stay in school and think about nothing else but their lessons, instead, stay on the streets to sell doses and earn. With such kinds of life, the students are exposed to hardships that pressure them to prankster in order to survive and consequently apply it in school.To the police, the students are just the like their parents, drug dealers and cheaters who are threats to the peace and order of the community. They know they are selling drugs and they are watched like adults. Sometimes, they are in any case made as assets when the opportunity arises. They know they are tough so that even if they are young, they function rough with them. The kids parents look up to them to take responsibility in their families. For instance , Michael is expected to provide for the familys necessarily and in the eighth episode of season 4, he even gives his mother money (3437) instead of the mother giving him what he needs. The familial and environmental backgrounds of the children demand them to become tough as they are and wooly-minded interest in schoolwork. However, to the teachers, the children are still children and human beings. Although most of them are flunk in their classes, the teachers like Prezbo, do their best to let the children learn. The sad thing is there are also teachers who look at the situation differently. As one teacher said, it is not about the kids but it was about Prezbo surviving (3725). The dialogue came up when Mr. Rolan Pryzbylewski, also known as Prezbo, brought to the attention of the other teachers the very high percentage of failing students who were not yet able to do basic mathematical applications their age mates are performing. The state was implied, that he should just let hi s students pass. One teacher suggested that he should not teach

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Analysis of Why i Live at the P.O. by Eudora Welty Essay

Analysis of why i Live at the P.O. by Eudora Welty - Essay ExampleThis search will begin with the statement that Why I live at the P.O. is a book indite by Eudora Welty, who was born in Jackson Mississippi. She was a multitalented artist, who succeeded as a writer and a photographer. She was stimulate to write this story by a lady ironing in a small untaught contain office, whom she saw while working as a public photographer. Although Welty writes in varied moods and styles, Why I Live at the P.O. is a representation of her masterful use of vital characteristic of grey linguistic communication. It is, therefore, one of her beloved stories. The story takes a form of a dramatic monologue. It is taught from the first person narrator, sister. baby tells her side of story, explaining to the readers why she moved away from a home she had grown into adulthood, to a local post office. Her story is an appeal to the reader to take her side of the story as she resentfully recounts her Si sters unfair maneuvers in turning every member of the family against her. However, her exaggeration and self pity turn her plaza unintentionally humorous. The events of Why I Live in P.O. sets in motion when the narrators Sister, Stella rondo returns to the family in China Grove. Sister states that before the arrival of her sister, she was getting along well with her mother, Papa-Daddy, and Uncle Rondo. The arrival of her sister, therefore, interrupts her uneventful life. Stella Rondo had just left her husband, Mr. Whitaker, a man Sister had briefly dated before adequate engaged to Stella. Stella Rondo arrives home with a girl, Shirley T, she claims to micturate adopted. Everybody in the family believes that the girl is actually adopted barely for sister, who believes that Shirley is Stellas biological daughter. Sister asks Stella bout Shirleys parentage, and Stella gets furious with her. She decides to turn Papa-Daddy against Sister and tells him that Sister suggested that he should cut short his beard. Papa-Daddy believes this and gets angry with Sister, reminding her that it was through him that she got the job at the Post Office. Later, Sister prepares green-tomato pickles, an act that is disapproved by florists chrysanthemum since Uncle Rondo and Shirley T would not agree with the food. In an argument between Mama and Sister, Mama does not agree with Sisters believe that Shirley-T is not adopted. Sister goes further to suggest that Shirley could have a developmental problem since she had never uttered a word. Stella is angered by the accusation, and has Shirley sing a song. Mama insists that Sister should apologize, but she refuses. In her attempt to have Uncle Rondo turn against sister, Stella claims that Sister sneers at his ludicrous appearance. Uncle is angered and throws lit firecrackers in Sisters bedroom. It is at this point that Sister decides to move. She makes her reasons know and collects her belongings from the house. The story is taught from the first person point of view, therefore, a subject to the distorting interpretations. She skillfully directly addresses her earreach in an attempt to call for attention to specific egregious offenses. At the end of the story, she believes that a transplant in venue shall be a solution to her problems, but it is arguable that her departure is a contract of cowardice (McHaney 39). Welty skillfully uses diction throughout the story. This is evident in the manner in which she records distinctive speech models of the characters. This is meant to humanize the characters and firmly place them in a local setting. In addition to this, she fills the stripes of converse with idiomatic expressions extracted from speech among the southerners. For instance, instead of must have, she writes must of, a transcription, grammatically unacceptable, but standard to the characters particular(a) self expression ((McHaney 76)). Welty also uses appearance of words as an attempt of adding unique rhythms and tones to the speaker. For instance, when Papa-Daddy is angered, she writes l-a-y-s (McHaney 76). This spacing is intend

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Marketing Assignment. SABIC Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Marketing . SABIC - Assignment ExampleSABIC was founded in 1976 and operates globally in more than 44 countries in the globe. The company is estimated to have more than 33,000 employees all over the world (Sabic.com, 2012). The organisational structure of SABIC includes a total of six different business units, namely Chemicals, Performance Chemicals, Polymers, Fertilizers, modernistic Plastics and Metals. all told these business units are engaged in the production of four product types, namely Chemicals which includes Performance Chemicals, Fertilizers, Metals and Plastics which includes Innovative Plastics and Polymers (Companydatabase.org, 2009). For the year 2011, SABIC recorded a net profit equalling SR 29 billion and its annual turnover rate for the year was SR 129 billion. PEST Analysis Political The government of Saudi-Arabian Arabia follows a system of monarchy. No political party is officially recognised in the state. Holy Quran is considered to be the constitution of Saudi Arabia and Sharia (Islamic Law) forms the basis for its governance. A central government has been developed by the kings of Saudi Arabia. A all-encompassing range of powers are gruelling in the hands of the king of Saudi Arabia. Political reforms have been initiated in the country with the formation of Shura or National Constitutive Council. The members of Shura have advisory powers regarding issues related to public interest. there has been a gradual expansion of the royally appointed Sharia over the past few old age (US Department of State, 2011). No income taxes are imposed on Saudi nationals and overseasers working in the country. Only foreign investors are required to pay taxes on their net profit. However the Sura Council members are thinking of the proposal of taxing foreign expatriates. Economic Major economic activities are strongly controlled by the government of Saudi Arabia. Major revenue earnings are derived from the petroleum sector. Private sector growth i s existence further in the country to promote diversification of economy and employment of Saudi nationals. The effort of diversification is concentrated on telecommunications, power generation, petrochemical sector and exploration of natural gas. There is an unemployment problem mainly because of lack of grooming and technical expertise amongst Saudi nationals and government is making concentrated efforts to address this issue. Foreign investment is being promoted in the country (CIA, 2012). Socio-Cultural Islam is the predominant religion in the country and Arabic is its official language. Saudi Arabia has a conservative cultural environment. Officially the country strictly adheres to the Islamic law and its Wahhabi interpretations. Cultural presentations are divinatory to be in conformity with the ethical standards which are narrowly defined. Technological The country is experiencing rapid advancements in technology. Increased use of internet in business activities in the cou ntry. Growing advancements in e-Commerce and electronic overhaul technologies (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, & Sandhu. 2010, p.1). Analysis of Ten Trends Affecting the Organisation Political Trends 1. The political environment of Saudi Arabia is quite stable. The country is devoid of any democratic system. National elections are not held in the country and political parties do not exist. Hence it has a positive impact on the business environment of SABIC and the company is

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee Essay Example for Free

Bury My Heart at Wounded human knee EssayAmericans who have al carriages looked westward when reading well-nigh this period should read this book approach eastward. Despite the popularity of the eyewitness accounts, browned is not an absentee narrator. In the book chocolate-brown emphasizes two primary(prenominal) points, the quarrel he uses and the storyline of the book. He uses these two things to give the eyewitness accounts as ofttimes bear on as possible. In the process, he attempts to defile his enemy in all kinds of different manners The trend Brown makes his referees view eastward is by using the faults that have plagued the indigenous Americans. Browns way of emphasizes language allows the readers to connect to the aboriginal Americans and this allows the book to thrive and continue. This book differs from a lot of new(prenominal) books about Native Americans, because he uses many Native American interpretations. For example, the Sioux and Cheyennes frequen tly see trains decimate through their nation in the Powder River country. Says Brown Some cartridge holders they saw Iron Horses dragging wooden houses on wheels at great speed along the tracks .They were puzzled over what could be inside the houses. Brown uses the terms Iron Horses and wooden houses to describe trains and train cars, as a Native American at this epoch would have perceived them. Brown also uses the Native American designations for U. S. military ranks in his descriptions. For example, to a Native American at this time, a general was known as a Star oldtimer and a colonel was an Eagle Chief. In addition, Brown refers to prominent American historical figures by their Native American names.For example, many Native Americans called General George Armstrong Custer Hard Backsides, because he chased them over long distances for many hours without leaving his saddle . Brown also uses Native American naming systems for natural processes like time. Because Americans duri ng this time divide the year into twelve months and refer to these months by names like May and June, however, Native Americans referred to these time periods by their relationship to nature.So, in Browns book, May is the mope When the Ponies Shed and June is the Strawberry Moon. By using distinctly Native American interpretations like these in his narration, Brown takes his readers deep into the Native American experience. In the process, the reader begins to identify with the Native Americans. When readers identify with characters, they tend to feel sympathy for them. through Dee Browns thesis, Brown organizes his story to maximize his readers sympathetic emotions.Brown establishes a three? part structure for just about chapters, which demonstrates again and again that Native Americans lost no matter what they did. Francis Paul Prucha for examples states that The materials have been selected to make the authors point, not to present a balanced view of what happened, from the Na tive American standpoint or from any other. Typically, the chapter begins with a discussion of a chief or tribe who has lost something, generally a raise of their land and still has more to lose.For example, in the beginning of the second chapter, Brown notes As the result of two deceptive treaties, the woodland Sioux surrendered nine? tenths of their land and were crowded into a narrow strip of territory along the Minnesota River. Following the discussion of what has been already lost Brown introduces the second part, the struggle. For Native Americans in the nineteenth century, the struggles were many, whether they decided to go to war or did not. Many tribes in the book do choose to appointment to retain their remaining land and unleashdom.In most cases, the tribes win some battles but end up losing the war. The U. S. soldiers be too advanced and numerous to be defeated, something that the Native Americans begin to realize. For example, Little Crow is careful about fighting at first, because he had been to the East and seen the power of the Americans. They were everywhere and with cannons they would destroy everything in their path. yet when the Native Americans outnumber the whites, the military technology can be the decisive factor in the victory.As many Native Americans learned, even though they had bravery, numbers, and massive charges all of that would mean nothing if the Native Americans were build up only with bows, lances, and clubs. In cases where the Native Americans try to remain peaceful, Brown shows many ways that they are aggravated into war. In several cases, settlers or miners hungry for the Native Americans remaining land spread lies in an enterprise to get the government to take their land. During the Civil War, Native Americans were sometimes provoked into fighting because it was the safer of two options for white, manlike citizens.For example, Brown says there was political pressure on soldiers from Coloradans who wanted to avoi d the military draft of 1864 by serving in uniform against a few poorly armed Indians rather than against the Confederates farther east. point after the Civil War, when the draft was no longer an issue, some drafted soldiers used lies to provoke Native Americans and slaughter them because peace was not profitable for the settlers. The final part of Browns argument in most chapters is the ending. Due to the massive struggles that Native Americans faced whether or not they chose to remain peaceful, most chapters end badly.The chiefs, who are often depicted as strong in the beginning and middle of the chapters when they are fighting for their land and people, end up dead, in prison, in exile, or on a reservation with the rest of their people. steady the exceptions to this rule, such as the chapter depicting Red Clouds successful war, ultimately end negatively. Red Clouds story is an example of the overall structure of the book. The book starts out with many Native Americans living f ree and retaining parcels of their land.As the story progresses and the white emigration start to take over, large armies and groups of white settlers cut bring down the various tribes. By the end of the book, the effect of white emigration has impacted around so much of the country that most Native Americans are dead, in prison, or on scattered reservations. To conclude I felt the effect on the reader is profound. Brown has gotten his readers to root for the underdogs by using eyewitness accounts and language to draw readers into the Native American experience.Yet, in each chapter Brown steadily crushes any hope that the reader might have for the Native Americans winning much of anything by using his plot. By using these strategies, Brown makes his readers feel more into the book by trying to make them sympathize to the Natives. Browns tone, or attitude towards his subject matter, is one of barely restrained outrage, and he wants readers to get angry, too. Tom Phillips, another re f states, Brown has gone too far at some points and is guilty of the same faults as those who created the raditional video of the Native American as savage, alcoholic and expendable.

Monday, April 15, 2019

A Tentative Study of Trademark Translation Essay Example for Free

A Tentative reckon of stigmatise rendering EssayAbstract Trademark is a special kind of spoken communication signs. It is the minginess of commodities explicit characteristics, the core of commodities blind alleyture, and the powerful weapon for an enterprise to participate in international competitions. With the development of globalization and the increase in international trade, the harvest-times of importing and exporting strengthen day by day the description of shufflemarks is gaining to a greater extent and to a greater extent attention. Nowadays, more and more multitude have realized that a exhaustively description of a earmark in promoting sales is crucial to the development of international markets and profits making. According to near instances of earmark transformation, this thesis summarizes nearly main characteristics of trademark, and discusses the principles and both(prenominal) general method actings of trademark interpretation. Key wrangl ing Trademark characteristics exposition principles deracination methods , , , , , , , , , , Introduction According to R.Heis, an Ameri merchantman economist A chump anticipate, i. e. trademark is a name, form, sign, design or a combination of them that tells who crystalizes it or who sells it, distinguishing that product from those made or sold by others. (Guo Guilong Zhang Hongbo, 2008 100) A trademark is just akin a products name, which is the representative of the moving picture of a comp any and the symbol of quality. In promoting sales, the trademark plays a actually important role in arousing consumers desire to shop, bringing the huge economic benefits and thus far in determining the survival of a company.With chinaw bes joining to the WTO, China strengthens cooperation with other countries, including increasingly frequent economic and trade exchanges. How to introduce our products to impertinent countries, bring foreign products into the domestic markets and conduct a successful sales business has become sooner important. thitherfore, a successful shift of trademark becomes urgent and necessary for the enterprises. While trademark rendering is not totally a naive con pas seul from one code to another, entirely a clear determination of the cross-language commercial, a special cross-cultural communication activity.Thus, it is vital for us to pay more attention to the principles and methods of trademark displacement. Chapter1 The Characteristics of Trademark Though there ar various definitions of trademark, they sh atomic number 18 something in common. In general, a trademark should be mere(a) and prospering to remember, and should be regular and favorably associative. 1. 1 Simple and Easy to remember It is a basic requirement for a trademark to be simple and unfreeze to spell. Choosing short and simple pronounces for composing trademarks go out help consumers comprehend them more easily, beca uptake simple and shor t words ar easy to sustainment in memory.Nowadays, with the fast development of economy, more and more trademarks flood into the market, how could consumers memorize entirely of them? Therefore, if a trademark is short and easy to spell and memorize, it stinkpot occupy the market easily. In fact, roughly well-known trademarks atomic number 18 in short form, such as Nike, Sony, Apple and so on. 1. 2 distinctive from Similar Products We all know that the purpose of using trademarks is to distinguish one product from others. Therefore, to be distinctive is another important characteristic of a trademark. Trademarks, in a sense, argon play off to signs and reputations.Distinctiveness john help customers not to be easily confused with other trademarks in the market either by sound or appearance. Distinctive and typical words whitethorn be used to distinguish the pertinent product from others. Kodak (camera) created by the manager, is distinctive and easy for the potential cons umers to memorize. The Chinese famed trademark Lenovo( ), ignore easily be differentiated from other computers, because Lenovo, a coined word, butt joint be associated with the word legend which is particular and attractive. Lenovo is more ripe than legend.Adventurous consumers go out take that trademark distinguishes the relevant product from other computers with consummate ease. 1. 3 Arousing favourable Association Most trademarks can arouse favorable knowledge, which is an indispensable feature of trademark. Owing to the requirement of marketing, a trademark is not only a sign, nevertheless also an advertisement. It should arouse the favorable association and take the stand the in force(p) quality to consumers. round trademarks have inherent meaning and some have historic or cultural connotations, both of which can arouse favorable associations. LUX (soap) is a product of Unilever Company.LUX, a Latin word, means sunshine. So the consumer can associate it with bright s unshine and healthy scrape. This trademark even let mass animadvert the romantic skin senses on the summer beach. Whats more, consumers can associate LUX with lucks and luxury from its appearance and pronunciation. Thus, Unilever Company publicizes the good quality of its products by the favorable association of the trademark. From the above example, we can see that the inherent meaning of trademarks plays an important part in advertising and can arouse peoples desirable association and let them accept the products.Chapter 2 The Principles of Trademark Translation Trademark translation is an art as well as a science. It is a comprehensive cognitive accomplish which is related to linguistics, translation theory, intercultural communication, aesthetics, and consumer psychology. habitually speaking, trademark translation is a complex task of compromising amongst the meanings of trademarks and their consumers. Therefore, to fork over trademarks successfully, some principles sho uld be taken into consideration. 2. 1 Reveal the Products Characteristics Usually, every product has its identification.Trademark translation should show the features and functions of the products, so that the buyers could immediately think of the usage of products when they see the trademarks. As has been discussed by Xu Hui and Cheng Zhendong, the characteristic of a product means that it has some basic elements which differ from those of others (Xu Hui, 200455-56). The translated brand name should match with the characteristics of products and show the thinking of the headmaster name. The characteristics of products not only distinguish from others, but also contain the ability to communicate with the consumers.Thus, in the process of translation, the spokesperson should grasp the characteristics of the products, so as to promote the understanding of products for consumers, and help learn the characteristics and functions of the products by the set-back sight. For example, a trademark of suit-dress Hope Show is translated into , in which the word ? instantly reflects in the products for the dress up year, and ? add more promotion of a happy and peaceful feeling to the goods. The translation not only reflects the features of the product but also put ups to consumers aesthetic taste.Nobody allow for have interest in products which they are not acquainted. A successful trademark translation should have the trait that customers can learn the category and characteristics of the product. Like Nike, the famous American brand of sports wears, is the name of the goddess Victory in Greek myth. According to its pronunciation, it can be translated into or in Chinese. However, these two name cant reveal the characteristics of the product, but even give people a misunderstanding that Nike is some products for women. is better. ? means something durable.As the sport wear, durability is equal to good quality. ? implies that people can finally overcome d ifficulties and succeed, conforming with the connotation of Victory. These two words in Chinese show the features of the product perfectly. Another example is Procter Gambles antidandruff shampoo Head Shoulders. The translation means dandruff disappears when washed, and highlights the distinct characteristics of the product fully. Another two examples are Sportsman (bicycle) and Unlsports (sports shoes).The former is translated into , the latter into . If you are not beaten(prenominal) with the trademarks, who will associate it with their products? 2. 2 Choose the Appropriate Words As the symbol of products, trademarks should be simple and easy to remember and understandable for consumers. So in rescript to leave the best impression on consumers, translators should choose some assume words during the process of trademark translation. The more complicated words in the translation, the weaker the trademark sounds and the less memorable it becomes. For instance, McDonalds was t ransliterated into in mainland of China before and now is displaced by . excessively, in mainland, the brand name Hewlett Packard had a long translation of - for a long period. Now, the six-character variate, long and meaningless, has been replaced by the two-character mutant . Balancing these two versions, we can see the latter is easier to pronounce and memorize. Moreover, contains more meanings and can stimulate more favorable e favorable association of the the productassociation of consumers. Similarly, Head Shoulder(shampoo) was transliterated into before and now a more compact and meaningful version is popular. Stafanel, the brand name for apparel from US, is translated into now. However, what about a two-character version ? Also in China, Mercedes-Benz, the brand name for a quality car from Germany, was transliterated into before and yet is put into at present. A car from Great Britain Rolls Royce is translated into now instead of the former translitera tion . The Chinese version for Fair babe, a semi-conductor from the US, was before and now is instead. is easier to be pronounced and memorized than for Nescafe from Swiss.The upper new versions have replaced the old renderings because they are simple and easy to be accepted by consumers, in pronunciation, form and meaning. Easy acceptance by consumers finally promotes the sales of the products. On the contrary, some translations sound profane or whitethorn lead to invalidating associations in the Chinese language. Thus such translations would not be recognized and accepted by consumers. For examples, Psorales, a drug, was put into when just coming into China.No one knew what was and assumed it to be something discarded. It is not hard to imagine nobody would buy things that sound worn and useless. Later, it is replaced by ,a more vivid and meaningful version, and its sales was amend later onwards. 2. 3 Analyze the Aesthetics Features Trademark translation should c omply with the characteristics of morphology of trademark in the TL. acquire the best out of the combination of beauty in meaning, sound and form is the internal requirement if we desire to realize the associated function and the advertising function of a brand name.(Tang Zhongshun, 200275-77) The translated trademark accordingly must(prenominal) be normative, elegant, vivid and visual. Firstly, beauty of meaning means the translated terms should produce an artistic conception through a favorable association of words or component words so that people will have rich and nice association and arouse the expectation and pursuit of wonderful things. We have the typical examples of fairyland (beverage) and Tide (washing power). Since Sprite was translated into in Chinese, this product has prevailed in China due to the brilliant annotate and abundant connotation.The translated term in sound is not only quite close to the pronunciation of the buffer brand name, but also makes peo ple have a favorable association of lustration, neatness and tidiness, showing the sort and feature of the product. Secondly, beauty of sound means a brand name of the legitimate and its translated version should basically share the akin or similar pronunciation with the quality of sonority, rhythmization and musicality so that an esthetically pleasing enjoyment is gained in hearing that brand name (Zhang Quan, 200477-79).There are many successfully translated versions fully reflect the beauty of sounds. Take OMO (washing power) and CleanClear (facial cleanser) for example. As OMO is translated into ,it sounds like a compliment great in English. The translated term of CleanClear, makes good use of alliterative rhythmic reduplication in order to achieve a combination of phonetic rhythm and verve.Lastly, beauty of form means the translated trademarks should make the best of conciseness and simpleness in structure, namely using few syllables, readability and understandability of the words and overturning difficult and seldom-using words. People prefer two or three words of translated versions because this structure better accords with the referential custom and aesthetic psychology. There are many famous translated brand label with the above feature, such as HeadShoulders (shampoo), Avon (cosmetic), Johnsons (cream) and so on. curiously the translated version is full of the characteristics of concision, elegance and vividness representing the feature and function of the product. 2. 4 Pay Attention to pagan Differences Edward Taylor defined subtlety as a complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by individuals as members of a society. (Taylor Edward B, 187136) Namely, the major factors contributing to the making of culture are the religions, habits, customs and memorial, which vary considerable from countries to countries.As a carrier of culture, language is an important part of culture which reflects the characteristics of a nation, which not only includes the nations historical and cultural background, but also contains the national outlook on life, lifestyles and ways of thinking. From the relationship between language and culture, it is obvious that translation is not only a process of transferring the consultation language into the invest language, but also a process of a mutual communication and exchange between different cultures.Therefore, during the process of trademark translation, as language and culture are inseparable from each other, it is essential to pay more attention to cultural differences. 2. 4. 1. Differences in Religions Religions, myths, legends, and images from literary works are an in-separable part of culture. They are deeply root in culture and at the kindred time contribute a great deal to the institution of peoples concepts about certain objects.These elements, when involved in brand name translation, call for the translators sensitivity as well as flexibility in cultural adaptation in order that functional equivalence could be attained between the root system brand name and the head brand name. For example, Goldlion was not well-liked when it first appeared in the Chinese market with the name . It is said that many people would not buy that product just because the name sounds very close to in some Chinese dialects. Other people believe that the name was not well accepted because it resembles the sound of,which is also a taboo idea in China, especially in Hong Kong, where people display a particular care for things with luck-bearing names. Anyway, the product did not sell well until the new name was follow by Zeng Xianzi, a famous Chinese entrepreneur. He skillfully took apart the source brand name intogoldandlion. The first part was literally put into? to be faithful to the received, while the latter adopted the method of semantic transliteration and was put into ,meaningbringing pro fit. Such an auspicious name has helped a lot in grammatical construction up the good fame of the product. 2. 4. 2 Differences in History.Every country has its own history. In the history, many historical incidents happened. These incidents have carved into the culture and have become a part of it. Being unaware of the history when translating a trademark will lead to failure. Opium is a brand of perfume. Actually in the western cul ention to hich reflects nd nice associationame, but also makes ation. things. he producr. ture, such kind of trademark name is popular, such as Poison, another perfume brand. However in China, has a negative meaning. The Chinese people undergo the shameful history related to opium since 1840, when the notorious Opium War broke out.Without the consideration of history, this brand encountered the resistance from the Chinese consumers. Finally, the trademark name was banned in China. 2. 4. 3 Differences in Customs and Habits Custom is one of the branc hes of culture reflecting the specific characteristics of a nation or parts of the nation. It is the sediment of long history and closely conjugate with the surroundings and the way of life. So some customs and habits exist in one culture but may be absent in another, which brings about an obstacle to Chinese-English brand name translation.Many Chinese brand names come from Chinese custom. One of the well-nigh famous rice wine-coloreds named ( girl Wine) is produced in Shaoxing, Zhejiang res publica of China. To Chinese customers, the brand name represents the happy events in ones life, while they cannot arouse the same feeling in westerners if translated literally and that will absolutely cause cultural loss, because the western consumers do not know about the custom of the ancient Shaoxing. It is said that in ancient Shaoxing a jar of this wine was buried under the ground when a daughter was brought into the world.When the girl grew up and became a bride, the jar was turn ov er out and presented to the guests attending the wedding. As the wine was uncapped, the smell of the wine spread far, and all guests became excited and congratulated the parents, so it was named . When a translator translate the trade mark, it is very necessary to reveal the cultural information of the brand names. It is not only easy for customers to know about the origin of the wine but accept it quickly, because any one from any country would like to equally appreciate the glorious things, enjoy the happy feeling and desire success.Thus, in order to reveal the cultural information of this brand name, perhaps the translation Daughters Wedding Wine is more suitable. 2. 4. 4 Differences in the Attitudes towards Animals and Numbers People living in different cultures hold different strengths and beliefs towards animals and numbers. What is considered a good omen in one culture may not symbolize the same in another. Therefore, it is generally advisable that people should not use th is token of words to name the relative products, and when one translates existing brand names of this type, cultural adaptation may help him find a more proper aspire brand name.The difficulties caused by such words in brand name translation may be illustrated with the following example. As we know, the Chinese people a great deal associate at-bats with good luck because the Chinese character ? sounds the same as? (meaninggood fortune). Some Chinese legends even say that when a bat lives 100 years, it turns white in color and hangs upside down from a tree, and eating that bat could bring a person longevity. A red bat foretells even better luck for sounds exactly the same with (being supremely fortunate). Some Chinese stick to the belief so much that they name their products. But if the translator adapts his linguistic choices to the different attitude towards the animal in European cultures, he would not consider Bat a good name, for bat is regarded as an extremely evil omen in many European folklores. Perhaps translations like Fortunes would be better. Besides, numbers bring about different associations. Generally speaking, each culture has certain numbers believed to be either lucky or ominous, but this may often differ from individual to individual. allows take the translation of 7-up, a brand of soft drink, as an example.The number 7 is theory to be a lucky number to many English speakers, but it does not have the same meaning in Chinese. Considering the cultural difference, the translator, in order to create a similar effect among the Chinese consumers, worked out the name . The name is quite satisfactory because its first part? remains faithful to the source brand name without use uping any unfavorable meaning, and its second part? conveys the meaning ofhappiness and good luck,and hence makes up for the loss of connotation in the number7.Chapter 3 General Methods in Trademark Translation Peter Newmark once said that different translation strategie s should be adopted according to the different functions of different works (Mou Yan, 2008). It is well-known that trademark translation is not only to convey the cultural information of the source culture, but also to set up a good image in the target culture, and finally to attract the people in the target market to the product. In order to achieve these purposes, translators should adopt the following methods in the process of trademark translation. 3. 1 true(a) Translation substantial translation, referred to as semantic translation by Peter Newmark, is a way of translation which aims at preserving the most possible cultural messages (including the communicative aspect of culture, such as, the formal elements of the SL) of the source text at the collapse of the formal elements of the target language and sometimes even the intelligibility of the target text (Zheng Shengtao, 1994). Since the formation of words in the Chinese language is different from that in the Western languag es, it is actually impossible to achieve trademark translation by word-for-word translation in most cases.Peter Newmark favors literal translation too. He says, I am somewhat of a literalist because I am for truth and accuracy. (Newmark Peter, 200162) Although sometimes literal translation may create something exotic or even eccentric for the target language readers, it will in stages be accepted by the target language and its culture. As long as the translated brand names from foreign language can be understood and accepted by the target consumers, literal translation is the best way for promoting cultural exchange through the brand name translation in China.As the brand name translation is to transfer between cultures, translators should make the target consumers understand the source culture. Some people say there is a better way for translators to approach the original. That is literal translation, which can keep the national feature. For example, some traditional brand names, which are very familiar to the Westerners even to the world like (The Yangtze River), (the Yellow River), and (the Great Wall) are chosen by the producers, as they are the symbols of Chinese wonderful pictorial history.When translators translate them, they have no need to do any translation. As these brand names are well-known to the world, and these Chinese characteristics of brand names are fresh and mysterious to the Westerners, it is easy to evoke the target consumers purchasing desire. Translators can adopt literal translation. The brand names , , carry our ancient cultural information. When translators translate them into the Western languages, they should keep literal translation and add some notes, in order to let the target consumers know the source culture.Literal translation also keeps the general form and keeps the structure of the source language. Today, Chinese culture are getting more and more popular in the world, and more and more Westerners are eager to study our language in order to learn our long history. Therefore, the kind of translation is a necessary way to let more people learn our traditional culture. On the other hand, in the English-speaking countries, there are some brand names which can be literally translated. For example, the very famous brand name White cat is translated into .And the brand name Camel is translated into . All these translated brand names are very suitable for the products, and the products will very probably be loved by the consumers in the target market. Here literal translation is not the same as word-for-word translation. Word-for-word translation is to rigidly reproduce every word in the process of translation. Strictly speaking, it is not a translation method. But, literal translation is a skill of translation, even if there do exist some additions or deletions while the essence of the original is not destroyed.Literal translation makes the target language more smooth and acceptable. Although literal translation can most possibly maintain the cultural messages of the source language, it sometimes will cause misunderstanding of the cultural messages or create unintelligible meanings. Lets take Sprite as an example. If the word Sprite is translated literally or directly, it might be . The version would put Chinese consumers into great confusion because is a human-like monster in Chinese culture. Thus translators should consider other methods.Literal translation is adopted as the most ideal translation technique in reproducing images because it can make unnecessary the original images as much as possible. Some English expressions wearing word-for-word similarity to some Chinese expressions may mean something quite different. In this case, translators should go deeper to find out what these English expressions genuinely mean otherwise mistakes will be made in literal translation. 3. 2 Transliteration Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one system of wri ting into another and it is mostly found on the pronunciation.Transliteration attempts to be lossless, so that an informed reader should be able to reconstruct the original recite of unknown transliterated words. To achieve this objective, transliteration may define complex conventions to deal with letters in a source script that do not correspond with letters in a goal script. Transliteration means that trademarks are translated into similar names in pronunciation according to the original ones (Li Yi, 2009232-234) It is generally believed that the adoption of this method can help to achieve various purposes.Some trademarks obtained in this way can effectively remind the customers of their authorized status. Such trademarks are easier for target consumers to pronounce and memorize. Still, some trademarks are deliberately transliterated in order to cater to the foreign consumers general preference for foreign goods because some thus-translated trademarks sound more foreign-like. The world famous trademark Intel means the ability to learn and reason and the capacity for knowledge and comprehension. Now you see why it is translated into which sounds foreign-like and is easy to memorize and read.Meanwhile, it indicates the characteristic of the product. Another example is the translation of Ya Ya. (down wear) is transliterated into Ya Ya instead of Duck. The translated trademark Ya Ya is a sly name that can fulfill the simulating function of trademark effectively. These two examples show the characteristics of being simple and easy to pronounce and memorize and as well obey the principle of aesthetics. Though transliteration embodies the sound beauty of the original one, the translated trademark dictions should be chosen carefully.During transliteration, it is important to obey the characteristics of arousing desirable association. Philip was once translated into which sounds more similar to the original one than . But the three characters will arous e unfavorable association. People prefer good and appropriate words, and hence, when using transliteration method, translators should do their best to choose beautiful words. For example, Lancome (cosmetics) is put into .The two Chinesecharacters are beautiful and can be associated with an elegant woman with certain spiritual qualities. These two words are forever and a day connected with beautiful things, such as , . Thats why Chinese females have a partiality for Lancome. In translation practice, we find that English trademarks are highly coherent in letters or words and can be pronounced easily in one breath, while the transliteration of Chinese trademarks are unconnected into independent words in accordance with the specific Chinese characters. So the English version often lacks coherence.To avoid the dis value of transliteration in strict accordance with the standard Chinese pronunciation, we can use transliteration method flexibly. To some extent, we can translate a trad emark according to the local pronunciation. The following examples successfully avoid the above problem. (refrigerator) is translated into Frestech instead of Xin Fei. Frestech is composed of fresh and technology, which is coherent in structure and pronunciation. Whats more, it also implies that the product is produced with advanced technology. (tonic food) means that happiness is coming, suggesting the product will bring happiness and health to consumers.The English version Life caters to westerners psychology and is easier for them to pronounce and spell. 3. 3 Free Translation Free translation reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase longer than the original. In order to take advantage of the target language and make translated brand name more idiomatic and acceptable, some imaginary brand names are freely translated.Free translation can communicate the information of products clearly and vividly. It will make a strong impression on the target language consumers and arouse their response. There are many successful examples to show this method. For example, Ariel (washing powder) is rendered as . The word ? means clean and clear. So indicates the super cleaning capability of the washing powder. Similarity, Safeguard (soap) is not literally translated into , but . The translation describes the products function and attributes.Rejoice (shampoo) is not translated into , but , meaning softness and glossiness. Slek(shampoo) is also rendered as through free translation. in Chinese can be a noun as well as a verb phrase. If is construe as a noun, it means beautiful buds, implying ladies will be like an elegant bud after using the shampoo if is interpreted as a verb, it means nourishing a bud to make it come out. This implies the shampoo can make hair glossier. Zest(soap) is paraphrased as through free translation. ? is a very popular word in China, which brings the s oap a fashionable element.This translation is improved from the original one in literal method. is more proper and suitable to meet the needs of the youth who are the target customers. 3. 4 Liberal Translation plus Transliteration In order to reach the criteria of trademark translationbeauty in meaning and sound, and to make the translated versions possess the general features of good brand names, we can use the combination of liberal translation and transliteration to translate brand names, since in many cases liberal or transliteration cannot do the job along.A good translation of a brand name should not only be similar to the original sound but also reflect the connotation of the original. The combination of liberal translation and transliteration may achieve double purposes, as the message of the brand name will be more vividly reflected so that it will be more impressive to guide consumption. Here we take some examples to appreciate the merits of this kind of method. For ex ample, Pampersdiapers from PG, is rich in meaning and clear in pronunciation. The translated brand name has got a balance between the meaning and the pronunciation. The brand name of a medicine Bufferin is translated into . The translated brand name does not tell us what the medicine is, but it forms a sound which is very close to that of the source brand name. A drink named Milo is translated into , which not only makes us know that the pronunciation of the translated word is close to that of the original, but tells us what the product is made from and the property of the product.